Europe: A Natural History

Europe: A Natural HistoryA stunning four-part series, charting the dramatic events which have shaped the ever-changing landscapes and wildlife of Europe.

Genesis. An epic three billion year story begins, with the unraveling of clues as to how Europe's stunning landscapes and wildlife were created.

Witness Oxford roamed by dinosaurs, the Jura vineyards of France swallowed under tropical seas, St Petersburg buried under desert sands and the mightiest event of all, the birth of the Mediterranean.

Ice Ages. Over the past two million years Europe has been swept by waves of extreme climatic change. Two kilometer thick ice sheets carved their way across the continent, reaching as far south as London, Amsterdam and Berlin. Mammoths wandered the North Sea, and even lions and hippos roamed Trafalgar Square. Then, shortly before the last great Ice Age released its grip, our ancestors set foot on the continent.

Taming the Wild. In the last 10,000 years Europe has been transformed from a largely forested, virgin landscape in to the manicured continent we know today, and at an ever-accelerating rate. As culture spread its influence across the land with monumental symbols of ownership, animals were tamed, seeds were sown, forests decimated and minerals excavated. How did wildlife cope with these drastic changes, and what impact did they have on ourselves?

A New Millennium. Today, some 730 million people live in Europe. How is wildlife adapting to this brave new world, who are the winners and losers, and what efforts are we making to help? And ultimately, given the problems with unwelcome and invasive species on the continent through international trade, and an increasingly fickle climate, the future could bring all sorts of surprises.

Watch the full documentary now (playlist - 3 hours, 15 minutes)

Ratings: 8.81/10 from 27 users.

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83 Comments / User Reviews

  1. norlavine

    Day off work, raining outside, just finishing up watching Genesis and loving everything about it. Educational entertainment for all ages, brilliantly edited footage with the smoothest,non intrusive narration. The effect is almost at times surreal.

  2. Gary MacDonald

    Looking forward to watching the full series. Cold outside, good food, GF at my side, the world is a better place. Since we are both Uber-Geeks, we approve of this Series!

  3. Earthwinger

    Two episodes in, and if I'm honest, before I started watching, I was all ready to dislike this, as the BBC has put out so many docs. using CGI, it's almost as if they're looking for excuses to use it nowadays. I was very pleasantly surprised though, as the CGI bits aren't overly intrusive, and at times really help to get an idea of scale, especially in part two, with the glacier over London.

    And then there's the commentary! Getting Sean Pertwee in to do the job was an inspired choice. His perfectly pitched voice is just sublime, and tops off what turns out to be a very slick, very entertaining, and informative series.

    I like it.....I like it a lot! :)

  4. AndyA121

    You know they alway come off with this "billions of year ago" thing . How could they ever come up with a number like that? Right, they've got very good imaginations. The earth is the way it is because of God and Noah's flood.
    If you look at a world map you can see how all the pieces of land ,if put together form one land mass. Just take a big cookie and pour liquid on it and it will break up in the same way just like the flood. I don't have all the answers, but I believe my answer is sound.

  5. Earthwinger

    Why didn't I think of that? Continents and's all much of a muchness isn't it. Please!

    I think someone slipped something into your cookies. :D

  6. Domus Canus.

    Sparkling documentary. I loved the lulling sound of Sean Pertwee's voice, a perfect match for this delightful offering. It's not often I say Bravo! to the BBC, but this time I am happy to do so.

  7. Guest

    Wow, you must have bad cookies :)

  8. magarac

    You are absolutely right about all the landmasses fitting perfectly together. Plate tectonics is the thing responsible for breaking up the cookie. And heat is the cause, not god.

  9. Achems_Razor


    Move over Ray Comfort the banana man, and move over Chuck Missler the peanut butter man.

    New kid on the block the big cookie man, AndyA121.

  10. Guest

    Mr A, you horror! Laughed so hard that I choked on my tea and nearly died :/

  11. norlavine

    You are funny!! Wish robertallen1 (sigh) had your sense of irreverent humour.....xx

  12. AndyA121

    Your cookie, not mine.

  13. Herr Schadenfreude

    The endless vicious cycle of pig-mindedness in the form of yet another; under educated, willfully-ignorant, fallacious, Bible thumping, religious zealot, regurgitating some asinine, half-baked, non-scientific explanation whenever REALITY inconveniently contradicts, or challenges their long held beliefs with facts, not foolish religious dogma.

  14. Morthund

    sometimes I wonder how the hell I ever ended up in Norway of all places but then again, it's in Scandinavia and you can get away from people really easily over here

    now, reading further down, you can maybe see how people can have that effect on me

  15. Earthwinger

    @ AndyA121

    I must confess, I have been known (many years ago) to partake in the breaking and sharing, of the cosmic cookies. But that's a whole other story. ;)

    But anyway, I thought it might be useful to consider the relative merits of theories that explain continental drift. Namely, the theory of Plate Tectonics, a theory which, relies on the scientific method, and has been studied/observed by numerous scientists around the world since the first decades of the 20th Century, and then weigh it up against your own personal theory, which I've taken the liberty of naming for you. So from here on, lets refer to it as Biscuit Shift, or for the sake of brevity, BS.

    There are probably more peer reviewed scientific papers on Plate Tectonics, than I could shake a cookie at, but if you're interested, a good starting point is the Wiki page. There you will find a breakdown of the theory, and also a list of the scientific papers and books referenced. So it's a very good starting point for anyone with an inquiring mind.

    Then there's your BS theory. I considered doing a Google search for religion based BS theories, but quite frankly, I feared that in doing so, I'd risk losing the will to live. So instead, I'm going to assume that you dreamed it up, or perhaps had a vision whilst imbibing your milk and cookies at bedtime.

    If you care to research Plate Tectonics, you will see that many observations and experiments to measure the convergent continental boundaries have been conducted. These repeatedly show a direct correlation between the movement of the tectonic plates, and volcanic activity, mountain building, and ocean trench formation.

    Perhaps you'd care to share your BS research notes with us. However, if your work has been formulated on the inside of cookie wrappers, you should probably take care to avoid jamming up your scanner with crumbs and fondant centre residues.

    One question - If your BS theory is to hold any water (or should that be milk?), why don't we see the same process in action every time a country experiences serious flooding? And lets be realistic here, this happens quite a lot. One would assume that, applying your BS thinking, the world would by now, be reduced to a smattering of tiny archipelagos.

  16. AndyA121

    Pardon my simplicity,O.K.? So how do you come up with the billion year number, Herr?
    I am a very scientific person, that is with REAL science and real facts. So what is your explanation?

  17. Earthwinger

    "Pardon my simplicity,O.K.?"

    Simplicity used as a tool of inquiry, is IMO, a virtue and always pardonable, wilfull ignorance on the other hand, is inexcusable.

    As you're a self professed "scientific person" though, I suspect that if you were to Google "age of the earth" and look at the Wikipedia entry, you would be fascinated to learn that current scientific thinking, puts the age of the Earth at 4.54 billion years. This figure was arrived at using radiometric dating techniques. :)

  18. AndyA121

    Yes, I know about the continental drift theory which is only part of the elephant.That still doesn't account for the worldwide flood that happened in Noah's time of which there are mountains of evidences in ancient writings and even landscapes such as the Grand Canyon, etc.
    So if they did find an ark on the top of Mt Ararat would that change your mind? Actually.This is not about religion but real life and real history.

  19. AndyA121

    It's not about ignorance, it's about reliability. There are more scientific frauds that I have heard if than religious frauds.
    Carbon dating and Al Gores famous hockey stick graph. It's all guess work.

  20. Earthwinger

    There have no doubt been many floods during the course of the Earth's history, it is after all, a very long history, so one would expect that to be the case. Maybe some people even wrote about some floods, or passed on stories that were later written down. That doesn't make any such stories, anything more than pure anecdote, and they should be treated as such. As for the Grand Canyon, I fear that may not be the best example for you to cite, as studies of the geological record there, show it to have existed long before biblical times.

    Interestingly, I live in a country where a big ship was found buried on high ground. Fortunately though, it was then studied by men and women of science, and positively identified as being the site of a Viking longship burial. I guess though, had it been found by a religious person with an agenda, the interpretation could have been quite different.

  21. Guest

    Don't stop now guys, I want to know about the other parts of the elephant :)

  22. Earthwinger

    That's the funny thing about this elephant in the room. While I know that the whole idea of them is that they're invisible, surely they're given away by the smell of the BS. That's the other kind of BS though, not Biscuit Shift. It's purely coincidental that they happen to share the same acronym. ;)

  23. Jack1952

    @ AndyA121

    The stories of worldwide floods were memories of the floods when the glaciers melted at the end of the ice age. Google Lake Agassiz as an example of some of the catastrophic floods of the time. Noah is a mythological figure from those days not to be taken as history but as a tale of legend surrounding actual events. Before you use the Grand Canyon as an example maybe you should research this subject a little further.

  24. Jack1952

    @ AndyA121

    Carbon dating uses sound scientific principles whose reliability and consistency have been amply demonstrated. Learn a little basic physics and maybe you will have a better understanding of how and why it works.

  25. Guest

    Of course, purely coincidental. I am developing a soft spot for Biscuit Shift though, it's cute. With enough tea anything is possible!
    Like the man said,''I don't have all the answers, but I believe my answer is sound''. :)

  26. Jack1952

    @ AndyA121

    Using Noah as a reference would not indicate that you are a scientific person. If you want to learn about math, study math...geology, then study geology. If you want to learn about the Bible, study the Bible. You can't use the Bible to explain the principles of calculus, geology or biology. It is a religious book not a book of academia.

  27. Jack1952

    @ Earthwinger

    Biscuit shift!! Hilarious.

  28. Chris du Plessis

    O contrarily...the Bible is much more than just a religious book.I can't believe some people have the audacity to make it off as a book that's JUST this...or JUST that...and that you can't use it for THIS...or you can't use it for THAT.It IS ABSOLUTE...everything will pass and come to nothing,but the Word of God will stand forever.God tells us Himself, 'Heaven and earth will pass away,but My words will not perish or pass away.' 'Be careful, you scoffers. God may postpone His punishment for a time, but He will find you out in time, and punish you for despising His servants. You cannot laugh at God. Maybe the people are little impressed by the threats of God, but in the hour of their death they shall know whom they have mocked.' The Bible stretches from a history book,to a science book,to a literature book,to you name it...infinity.Without the Bible academia would not even have existed.

  29. Herr Schadenfreude

    When it rains it pours - not floodwater mind you, just an endless wave of closed minded feverish religious fanatics with an agenda to push to validate their own beliefs.

    I always found it amusing just how holy scripture is trumpeted as "absolute," "infallible" and "immutable truth incarnate," even with so many different competing versions the Bible existing, each claiming to be the sole legitimate, perfect and final word of divinity. Never mind the other religious texts out there, each with their followers and detractors.

    So it brings no small amount of comfort in knowing that no matter what vague, or explicit threats of "damnation", or "punishment" are thrown around, like morality stories told at night to scare children into behaving, or hopelessly idiotic attempts to bring down Scientific progress to their level, there is comfort in knowing that Mathematical and Scientific thought is truly universal and immutable. No matter who you are, what you believe in and what theories your faction follows, once proven, axioms such as; one plus one equals to two and a host of natural laws that govern the universe are all truths not subject to change.

    While academics such as Earthwinger and the like admirably professes dialogue towards this intended audience in order to provoke intelligent thought and discourse, along with no small amount of chuckles thrown in for good measure for the rest of us to enjoy, it's sadly done on deft ears. Fanatics are by definition extremists, zealots do not listen and certainly have no mind to challenge and scrutinize their thoughts and beliefs in order to prove that they can hold true. They may read your valid and sound comments, but they sadly don't, or can't think for themselves and one can not expect a reasonable reply in kind and it would be naive to expect otherwise.

    In closing, by the immortal words expressed by author Philip K. Dick; "Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn't go away."

    -Just enjoy the documentary.

  30. Herr Schadenfreude

    You don't get to cherry pick what you consider "real" science and dismiss all other evidence that are factually inconvenient against what you were brought up to believe as a basis for Scientific fact. Unlike Tectonic plate theory this isn't a jigsaw puzzle where you can win by simply smashing together pieces until they fit.

    What you espouse are your personal beliefs and values, not Science and certainly not in your words "reliably" scientific by any definition and all just fallacious argumentative reasoning. What you choose to believe may not have to be logical, nor hold up to scrutiny, but real, testable, Scientific theory is held at a much higher standard of proof.

    No, I'm afraid the fable of Noah's arc is not a legitimate basis for anything Scientifically provable, other than as a case study morality story used towards a degree in Human Psychology.

  31. Jack1952

    @ Chris du Plessis

    If you are going to study calculus read the Bible. I'll use a math text book. We'll see who graduates first.

    If you are righteous only to avoid the punishment of God you are not doing so for the greater glory of God. You are doing it for personal and selfish reasons. One should do right not to avoid punishment or to gain a reward in heaven. One should do right because it is the right thing to do.

    We are off topic. This documentary should be an example to those who have religious leanings of how amazing the world that God created is. Instead you use it as a forum to preach fire and damnation. That is the sadist form of Christianity.

    You claim God created all...which would include your brain. I think he would appreciate it if you used it once and while.

  32. AndyA121

    But it is not Pure antidote when they come up with the same name of the person that engineered the ark in an altogether different continent on the other side of the world does it?Ancient civilizations such as (China, Babylonia, Wales, Russia, India, America, Hawaii, Scandinavia, Sumatra, Peru, and Polynesia) all have their own versions of a giant flood and it goes right along with the Biblical description.
    Just like computer science, medical info, and other info is updated, it is the same with flood.
    So what do they call that when everyone else has basically the same story?


  33. Herr Schadenfreude

    While I'm glad that you've proven capable of a higher level of discourse, you're overreaching again and ignoring valid points put forth by others with your conclusions, as other people here have pointed out; flooding is a very common phenomenon that happens throughout the globe. The problem with your story is that it all hinges upon a simultaneous massive catastrophic global flood that can't be substantiated with any shred of validating scientific proof.

    For it to hold water, global evidence and a reliable timeline calculated to be accurate within two standard deviations of error, for starters, is needed before anyone will take what you say seriously, much less provide non-inscrutable physical proof. Such evidence does not exist, you might as well claim alien abductions and crop circles are proof of extraterrestrial life. [It's not.]

    The next time you offer a link make sure it doesn't have words such as "creation" and "legend" in it, both essentially tantamount to 'imaginary' story.

  34. AndyA121

    Criticizing the messenger doesn't change the message. The truth still stands gentlemen.

  35. Epicurus

    LOL explain to me how carbon dating is guess work. but first explain to me how carbon dating works. or are you just parroting what a creationist website told you?

  36. Herr Schadenfreude

    Spoken just like a haughty pipsqueak slinking away form a losing debate to save face when realization dawns that they have nothing in defense of their positions.

    Now, if you feel that you're being criticized, it's because you're disgustedly trying to warp real Scientific knowledge to fit your superstitions and don't even have the decency to feel ashamed, or apologize for the affront. Just walk away, if you had done that in the beginning we wouldn't have had to expose your ideas to scrutiny deconstruction and ridicule.

    You're right on both counts though; no quantity of believers can transmute fictional messages into reality and Science does stand for the pursuit of truth.

  37. AndyA121

    Carbon dating has been know to be unreliable for many years now.Everybody parrots. So what is wrong with gathering info from a creationist website? Sometimes I get info from secular websites too.Should it really matter so much, if all we are looking for is the truth?

  38. Earthwinger

    I'm guessing here that the problem you're hinting at (assuming that you've even bothered to research this), is the calibration of 14C and fluctuating background levels. This is a very old, very tired and completely erroneous creationist argument. Scientists knew as far back as 1970 that 14C levels could be problematic and have long since learned to identify and mitigate against any errors that it might have thrown up.

    But that hasn't stopped creationists from being economical with the truth, for the purposes of propaganda.

  39. AndyA121

    Do you know why they can't disprove the resurrection of Christ?

  40. Earthwinger

    "Do you know why they can't disprove the resurrection of Christ?"

    Hmm, how about - you can't disprove it, because you can't even prove that he existed in the first place?

    And yes, I know that scholars such as Pliny The Younger, Suetonius, and Tacitus, wrote a few lines referring to Christos or Christ, but that simply means "The Anointed One" and doesn't specifically name any one person. Then there's the most referenced of all, Josephus, but his writings have long since been proved to be a forgery.

    I can't disprove that there are fairies and boggarts at the end of my garden, but common sense tells me that any such musings would be a waste of time that could be put to much better use.

    I've really nothing against allegorical tales, but please don't try to palm them off as literal truths, when they're clearly not.

    Christianity is a religion based on myths that were appropriated from much older religions. A great example is the 10 commandments. They were copied almost verbatim from Spell 125 of the Egyptian Book of The Dead, and that pre-dates Christianity by a long measure. The same is true of most of the themes in the Bible. The Bible is just a reworking of much older Pagan beliefs and allegorical tales.

    If you want to live your life according to those myths, fine, I'm sure you could do a lot worse. But when you start trying to pass those myths off as absolute unwavering truths, you're getting into very dangerous territory, and on a path that leads to fundamentalism, and we all know where that path usually ends up.

  41. Jack1952

    @ AndyA121

    "Do you know why they can't disprove the resurrection of Christ?"

    The simple answer is this. It can't be done. Belief in the Bible is an article of faith. Read the following verse from the Bible.
    Hebrews 11:1 "Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen".
    This means that the substance of your faith is unseen. It is not of the rational world. Any attempt to prove it to be true is futile. Furthermore, it is unimportant whether you can prove it true or not. You don't need proof. You need faith. That is what the following verse tells you.
    Ephesians 2:8 "For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God".
    I'm sure you know the other verses that say the same thing.
    So, stop trying to prove what is unprovable. It is unnecessary.

    The facts learned from science are provable. Scientific research is based on observations verified until they can no longer be denied. How you reconcile scientific facts and your faith may seem difficult but it must be done if you want salvation. To deny what science has taught us is childish. For you, it is unthinkable to deny your faith. The honest thing to do, then, is to meld the two together and stop trying to put the rest of us into eternal damnation. That is up to God (if he exists).

  42. Herr Schadenfreude

    Simple rhetoric: asking for proof for, or against the supposed "resurrection of christ" is a loaded question, which you're entirely basing on presupposition.

    Since you're obviously too young and foolish to understand the implication of a fallacy within your statement, I'll break it down so that even a child can comprehend its meaning with a single variation of the standard counter question:

    Answer yes, or no; did the priest stop molesting you?

  43. AndyA121

    You are talking about religion, I am talking about God outside of man-made religion.

  44. Herr Schadenfreude

    That's completely idiotic! You might as well ask us to discuss how to breathe outside of air, completely off the wall ludicrous.

    Child, why do you even bother commenting here? This documentary is clearly marked under the 'nature' tag, not 'religion,' nor is it the proper place for discussion any religious based theories of nature.

    Don't embarrass yourself any further, I can guarantee that whatever nonsense you may ask next, the adults in this conversation will always have a meaningful, thought out answer to counter it.

    In fact there's a freshly uploaded religion tagged documentary on the front page, go watch that instead, because obviously you're not here to seek knowledge, you're here just to preach what you believe.

  45. Earthwinger

    It's impossible to know which point you're trying to address here, as you haven't used the reply function. You also seem to have slipped into a pattern of nothing more than obfuscation. If you wish to debate with people, then fine go for it, otherwise your posts are just noise.

  46. AndyA121

    o.k. I plead the 1st amendment.

  47. Herr Schadenfreude

    He knows full well that if he attempts in real life to hijack his school science lessons by interjecting the same nonsense here, a certain Mr. and Mrs. Anduer will be receiving very unfriendly stern phone calls to meet the guidance councilor.

    Here he thinks he has free reign to address others as equals, but he forgets the internet is populated with more than fourteen year old kids looking to validate themselves.

  48. Herr Schadenfreude

    How cute, he thinks he's on trial, what he really should be pleading is ignorance, especially because one usually pleads against self incrimination, you know the FIFTH amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Just digging yourself deeper...

  49. Rolf Bruner

    AndyA121 is a Tit.

  50. Yavanna

    I only just watched the doc which was quite good but now I`ve read the comments I`m really confused.

    If Andy's god poured water on his cookie wouldn't it just turn into a mushy doughy puddle? Not break apart as he suggested? Also as I understand it cookies in this universe are flat so the analogy indicates Andy is also a Flat Earther.....

    Anyway I`ve always thought of God as being a bit of a dunker. That would make more sense - why would any rational God pour water over his cookie anyway??!!

  51. azav

    Beware the zombie Jesus!

  52. azav

    Silly monkey, there were many floods. IF Noah's deal happened, there would be no grasses and trees, no koalas, kangaroos or llamas and dinosaurs would still swim in the seas.

  53. azav

    The "word of god" told me just how and when to sell my daughter into slavery.

    It also told me to never shave and not to wear blended fabrics.

    By the way, you might want to bone up on the rest of the gospels of the day, the Apocrypha. I am partial to the infancy gospels of Thomas where the "son of god" kills 3 people before he is 13.

  54. Herr Schadenfreude


    The brat has abandoned his hastily prepared dung-work position in face of our relentless onslaught of Scientific truth and has been driven, bushy tail firmly between stubby legs, back over the dark borders of the ignoble pit that spawned him. Good riddance.

    I found my share of amusement this week satisfactorily sated.

    So back on topic, does anyone here know of a research article, with visual chart representation detailing global sea levels and land exposed, from the time of the Last Glacial Maximum ice age, that doesn't call upon Wikipedia as a source? I've seen a documentary video voice narrated by Avery Brooks a while ago, but I would like something visual that I could print out. Much appreciated.

  55. ELFIS

    'fondant centre residues.' Classic!

  56. Melissa Rambler

    carbon dating is not unreliable

  57. AndyA121

    O.K. you're right, but not totally reliable either.

  58. Herr Schadenfreude

    Infinitely more reliable than the half-baked cookie alternatives you have espoused. At the very least Scientific claims can be retested and verified by others in controlled experiments and always within a peer-reviewed acceptable degree of uncertainty, faith can not claim the same privileges.

    There are no absolutes in scientific principles, try running any experiment, the very best one can expect is 99.9% accurate results, anyone demanding absolute 100% results all the time with no margin of error -before accepting a method as valid, is a fool.

    If you're still looking for absolute truths to weigh against your beliefs, stay away from the Sciences, both Science and Religion are mutually incompatible realms. Abandoning the search for knowledge at "god did it, it says so here in this book I'm holding, inquire no further" is never a valid, nor sound answer for unlocking enigmas.

    Once again, either take the time to sit down and question your unwavering blind faith in biblical absolutes, or go away with your childish nonsense.

  59. AndyA121

    O.K. I am a fool for God and you are a fool for Darwin but that doesn't make my "cookie theory" invalid.

  60. Herr Schadenfreude

    Seriously boy? Haven't you been paying attention to every single reply below that others have painstakingly and systematically bothered to post to correct your childish misconceptions and failures of understanding? Everyone else here just strait up laughed at your face instead without consideration and here you are continuing with your feeble-minded sad attempts at a proper rebuttal and failing miserably.

    Literally everything you have posted has been proven fallacious, untruthful, false, anecdotal -by the way that's how it's spelled look it up next time, and above all criminally ******. Often you walk away from our finely delivered points with no rebuttal at all and here you are stubbornly trying to deflect everything to boil it down to "your side versus mine" because you choose to ignore what you don't want to hear?

    There are reasons nobody takes seriously the opinions of a fourteen year old boy and you have provided many of them in spades.

    Your theory is invalid, we have provided data and proof thereof.

    You are a ****, you have admitted it above and below.

    Everyone else here sticks to their points, you however like to run in circles, pretending that everything we point out will just fade away.

    If it wasn't so amusing, I would just laugh in your face instead, luckily I need to stay in practice in debating with the *****ded and immature, if only as an exercise to maintain my University level education at proficient levels, so I don't wind up with "because I said so" replies for my kids.

  61. Epicurus

    yes it should matter. the truth is not subjective. it is objective. you need to be looking objectively.

    maybe you would like to explain to us how carbon dating is inaccurate?

  62. AndyA121

    But I am being objective . I look at both sides.

  63. Herr Schadenfreude


    Epicurus posits; "maybe you would like to explain to us how carbon dating is inaccurate?" Answer him.

  64. RileyRampant

    great doc. screw all the yammering about christ, pro and con.

    that had NOTHING to do with the doc. most of the historical background was the shortest of shorthand. the focus was on the ecosystem, geophysics, flora & fauna.

    just let the idiots blather. you start blathering back, you get a blatherfest going. which is all the idiots know how to talk about anyhoo. let 'em.

  65. Herr Schadenfreude

    We heartily concur with those underlying sentiments, though I myself would be hard pressed to find such amusement elsewhere should this endless ridicule via deconstruction be shut down highhandedly.

    If anything allowing their ilk an avenue of reply whilst avoiding answering questions posed would only serve to encourage the blather-fest of ignorance, rather than prevent it, thus lets get back on track;

    What are you afraid of Andy? Answer Epicurus's question.

  66. AndyA121

    Carbon dating can tell you how old something maybe, but it is by no means a perfect system. A good example of that would be the Shroud of Turin.

  67. Herr Schadenfreude

    If you would only be so kind as to take the time to format your replies with proper English grammar in the future; addressing the merits of the carbon dating technique as simply in your words; "something maybe," comes across as broken gibberish and will be treated as such.

    You have accused the same method of being less than reliable, where is your supporting data for you to come about your conclusion? Provide this data for immediate review.

    We're not here to provide your own research for you, this is entirely sloppy and lazy of you to expect otherwise. Do your own research, then provide, in full, your evidence and data in support of your position. What of this Shroud of Turin, what is it, and more importantly how does it -as you claim, serve as a "good example" as a case against carbon dating techniques? Establish it, thoroughly and thoughtfully this time, without leaving open guesswork.

    You have only succeeded in assigning yourself further makeup homework. Take the time to formulate proper coherent answers and choose your next words with exceptional care, before you flippantly open that mouth of yours again.

  68. AndyA121

    Go and watch it yourself. it's on the site.

  69. Herr Schadenfreude

    What part of "do your own research" then come back to us don't you comprehend? Why should I go look for evidence to instantiate YOUR story? Insanity. By that reasoning the police should be required to provide the alibi for their suspects! Do you live in crazy upside-down land, or Earth?

    You are the one with an unsubstantiated claim to prove, not us, that's how reality works; if you make a claim, you provide the evidence, period. You certainly don't tell your detractors to go search for it because you're all too; incapable, brainwashed, stupid, or lazy to explain it yourself.

    Answer the question fully, that is, only if you want to be taken seriously. If you don't, or just give up, it'll be damning proof that you were never serious in the first place, thus stopping all further reasonable discourse and exposing you as a fraud and a fool, just as we all suspect and know you are. For any other worthless comment you pull afterwards, we'll just throw this truth back up in your face ad nauseum.

  70. silverrigger

    listen every one all religion is a form of control and always has been, and as for the bible thumpers commenting out there check out the gnostic gospels, there were 12 diciples not the four in the new testament. know your song before you start singing, the new testament was put together by the roman emperor constantine 325 years after christ, that would be like me sitting down and writing an indepth biography on cromwell having never known or spoken to him.
    religion has had two thousands years now, personally i think its time to listen to nature and the spirit there in i dont need a building or any one book the gospel of thomas says the kingdom of god is within you and all around you wake up and see god for what it is energy which can not be created or destroyed long live science, especially quantum physics which in the not to distant future will unite spirtuality and science as one and the same

  71. Herr Schadenfreude

    Sieg! And don't you dare come back you little bitch.

  72. Arnie

    This was a beautifully photographed series of Europe and the changes that have taken place over the past 300 million years.

    Accustomed to seeing nature programs about North America it was a nice change to go to Europe and Eastern Europe. There was a lot of new information presented with regards to past climate change and movement of the continents that explains the geography and mineral riches in Europe today.

    It was also nice to learn the extent of river cleanup that is going on today to bring back wildlife and restore streams to their former glory.

    The only mistake I came across in the series is the 3rd program and the reference to the Black Death / Plague in Europe being caused by rats. There has been a lot of new recent research that has been done that has been changing this old point of view.

    It is now believed that the Justian Plague around 536 - 545AD and the Black Death of 1348-1350AD was due to asteroid swarms that hit the Earth. The asteroids it is now believed, impacted the ground causing both earthquakes and poisoning the air with sulphur and ammonium gases and exploded in the air poisoning the air with sulphur and ammonia gas in addition to blocking out the sun rays.

    The foul air killed the people who breathed it in. The comet debris in the atmosphere blocked of the sun's rays eventually leading to crop failure, weakened the population from starvation, who then later were very susceptible to disease.

    This new look at the Justian Plague around 536-545AD and the Black Death of 1348-1350AD has come about because there are very few if any rat skeletons. The spread of the rats is too fast and the flees causing the infections would be dormant in the winter time when the Black Death struck.

    Google search:

    1. Dark Ages - Did a comet impact cause a global catastrophe around 500 A.D.
    2. New Light on the Black Death - The Cosmic Connection
    3. The Dark Ages : Were They Darker Than We Imagined?
    4. Don’t blame rats for the Black Death, new book argues

    These are some of the articles that I came across on scholars researching and investigating accounts from 500-600AD and 1340-1350AD and trying to figure out what really happened during the Dark Ages and times of serious plague.

  73. Arnie

    "Do you know why they can't disprove the resurrection of Christ?"

    Yes I do. I know the exact reason why.

    The resurrection of Jesus / Christ happens every year at the winter solstice. At this time of year the sun reaches its lowest point on the horizon. It is stationary for two days and then rises on the third day as it begins its ascent in the heavens towards its highest point in the sky, Summer Solstice.

    Jesus = Son of God = Sun of God = Sun God = Sun

    Jesus is simply the modern Christian name for the sun.

    Christianity has its roots way back in ancient Egyptian times (12,600BC) when the Egyptians worshipped the sun. Their Sun God was called "Amen Ra".

    The ancient Egyptians worshipped their Sun God "Amen Ra" on Sun day. This has now been carried into modern times by the Christian religion that worships "Jesus" = "Son of God" = "Sun of God" = "Sun" on Sunday.

    If you have ever been to a Christian church you will notice that "Amen" is said at the end of each prayer. This is why. "Amen Ra" is the name of the Egyptian Sun God.

    More interesting information on Christianity can be found in the documentary on this site called, “The Naked Truth.”

    Origins of Christianity go back to 12,600BC in ancient Egypt:

    Due to the Earth's precession the sun rises in a new constellation every 2,150 years.

    Virgo 12,600BC – 12,650BC (2,150 years)
    (Birth of Egyptian sun religion “Ra” in ancient Egypt that would create many of the symbolism's for modern Christianity. Ie Jesus born of the Virgin Mary = the sun rising in the constellation Virgo – Ancient Egyptian religion that worships the sun. Jesus = Son of God = Sun of God = Sun God = Sun)

    Pisces 200AD – 250AD (Age of Christianity)
    (Religion of Christianity is born and its astrological symbol is Pisces – the fish)

    The dates of Earth's Precession through the Zodiac over the past 23,200 years.

    This information has been made possible due to the Pyramid Star Clock on the GIZA Plateau in Egypt.

    Zodiac Sign Earth Precession Date (Sun rises in)

    Capricorn 21,200BC – 21,250BC (2,150 years)

    Sagittarius 19,050BC – 19,100BC (2,150 years)

    Scorpio 16,900BC – 16,950BC (2,150 years)

    Libra 14,750BC – 14,800BC (2,150 years)

    Virgo 12,600BC – 12,650BC (2,150 years)
    (Birth of Egyptian sun religion “Ra” in ancient Egypt that would create many of the symbolism's for modern Christianity. Ie Jesus born of the Virgin Mary = the sun rising in the constellation Virgo – Ancient Egyptian religion that worships the sun. Jesus = Son of God = Sun of God = Sun God = Sun)

    Leo 10,450BC – 10,500BC
    Orion's belt is at its lowest position in Earth's precession. The three smaller pyramids flanking the largest pyramid on the GIZA plateau (Pyramid of Khufu) coincide with the three stars of Orion's belt at the Vernal equinox (21st of March) in 10,450BC – 10,500BC. The three Pyramids exactly simulate the stars Delta Orionis [Mintaka], Epsilon [Alnilam], and Zeta [Alnitak] that comprise the Orion Belt.

    Cancer 8300BC – 8350BC (2,150 years)

    Gemini 6150BC – 6200BC (2,150 years)

    Taurus 4000BC – 4050BC (2,150 years)

    Aries 1850BC – 1900BC (2,150 years)

    Pisces 200AD – 250AD (Age of Christianity)
    (Religion of Christianity is born and its astrological symbol is Pisces – the fish)

    Aquarius 2,350AD – 2,400AD (2,150 years)

    On this date Orion's belt will be at its highest point in Earth's precession. The three smaller pyramids flanking the smallest pyramid on the GIZA plateau (Pyramid of Menkaure) should coincide with the stars of Orion's belt at the Vernal equinox (21st of March) in 2,350AD – 2,400AD. The three Pyramids should exactly simulate the stars Delta Orionis [Mintaka], Epsilon [Alnilam], and Zeta [Alnitak] that comprise the Orion Belt.


    "Do you know why they can't disprove the resurrection of Christ?"

    Yes I do. I know the exact reason why.

    The resurrection of Jesus / Christ happens every year at the winter solstice. At this time of year the sun reaches its lowest point on the horizon. It is stationary for two days and then rises on the third day as it begins its ascent in the heavens towards its highest point in the sky, Summer Solstice.

    Jesus = Son of God = Sun of God = Sun God = Sun

    Jesus is simply the modern Christian name for the sun.

    To learn more watch the documentary, “The Naked Truth” on this site.

  74. Duncan Idaho

    this "theory" (if you'd call it that) is completely false. You should look up debunking sites whenever you see/hear absurd ideas before you commit to them, as they cite sources... there's plenty to disagree with religion, don't rely on this made up foolishness... this selective evidence is the type that makes us skeptics look bad... son=sun??? seriously???

    PS... it isn't your job to disprove something you don't believe in... it's their job to prove it to give you reason to believe...

  75. jimmyjammer66

    People spouting there religous garbage should shut up and wake up, the bible is a fairytale grow up already and face the facts

  76. james rawlings

    People have been working on alternative theories for the Black Death and other plagues for quite a while. however, as far as I can tell, nothing has replaced the widely held view that Black Death was caused by Y.Pestis bacteria, carried by either rat and / or human fleas. Of the other theories offered, the one you mentioned is given least credence by experts.

    Also, the stuff about Amen being a derivative of Amen Ra is just ONE IDEA, put forward by some people (without academic evidence), and rejected by a far greater number of people, WITH academic evidence.

    Everyone likes a nice story, but don't believe everything you read, eh?

  77. lex lexich

    i believe you! i tried that with a cookie, and it breaks perfectly well, just like the continents, now you should try that with a loaf of bread dipped in tea and you will know about the saturn rings

  78. lex lexich

    you missed the point! i suggest you take some cookies and milk and try it all over again

  79. lex lexich

    there were no such big floods as the one with mr Noah recently, so i dont think that cookie theory is proved wrong yet

  80. amiableone

    Dear Herr,

    Please stop capitalizing 'scientific.' It is not a proper noun.

  81. parthenonas

    amateur mix up salad

  82. parthenonas

    Europe for the creators is North and Italy ..totally forgot Balkan landscape ,needless to say that the ''forgot'' Parthenon at the images of great human structures of Europe. monkeys

  83. madscirat

    Cool doc, worth the watch. If you're short on LULZ scroll down and watch the idiots turn it into a debate on religion.

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