Neanderthal

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Ratings: 6.81/10 from 31 users.

Chernobyl HeartEurope, eighty thousand years ago, for countless generations the kingdom of a remarkable and mysterious creature, Neanderthal. A species of human in many ways so similar to us, and yet also very different. Tonight we've brought together a crack team of experts to recreate Neanderthal. In unrivalled, anatomical detail. We'll discover exactly how modern humans would have stood up against our ancient rival in strength and endurance.

And how Neanderthals might have compared to us in intelligence and inventiveness. At the end of it all we'll be able to answer some of the great questions of human evolution. Was Neanderthal the simple-minded brute of legend? Or a rival to our own species? And why is it that today we are the only species of human alive and the Neanderthal is extinct?

It was the beginning of a legend. What was this ancient creature and when had it lived? Soon, one thing at least became certain, it had not been alone. Remains of the savages were being found all over Europe. From the Atlantic coast in the west almost to the foothills of the Himalayas in the east. They were everywhere.

Like so many of the best stories the saga of Neanderthal began with a chance discovery. In 1848, a strange skull was discovered on the tiny military outpost of Gibraltar. When it was first revealed, it confounded everyone who saw it. There was no doubt it was human, but it also had the heavy features of an ape.

  • Stan

    why are the out of africa africans so non african in appearance?

  • Tugrul

    I can't watch the documentary. There should be a technical problem...

  • http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/about/ Vlatko

    There is no technical problem Tugrul. The video is fine.

  • david

    hey stan in africa they have white black brown light brown carmel skin people are from all over africa mabey you should look into it like egypt people arn't as dark as the paople in mali or south africa has a lot of white folks...... i'm not being rude it's really kind of cool to learn how many countrys laungues and different cultures are in africa really check it out
    peace david

  • quietsamurai

    @ David

    There are so many White people in In South Africa because of European colonies. And the lesser dark skinned people of Egypt and the like are because of Arabic and Persian influence. Both are more because of cultural aspects and reasons because of conquest and exploration than physical evolution.

    Also because 80 thousand years ago the humans from Africa were not yet evolved the way they are now and specialized to the environments they would soon inhabit.

  • BattleAngel

    @ David and Stan

    Hello, just to build off of what quietsamurai was saying, Africa and black people are diverse so there is no one "look" for Africans, even among the black people, people in South Africa look very different than those in Nigeria, and those in Nigeria look very different from those in Ethiopia. In addition to the diversity of the indigenous Africans there are colonial "Africans" such as the Europeans in South Africa.

    Also some people in Egypt have white skin but they are Arabs and as far as history shows they are not indigenous to that region and migrated thousands of years ago. In addition to the Arabs, Romans, Persians, and Turks also conquered that area contributing to the diversity. Yet, closer descendants to the original inhabitants of Egypt are most likely found in southern Egypt among the Nubia regions.

    Africa is very diverse continent not just in color but in peoples and cultures.
    Its beautiful everyone who has the chance should travel there.

    peace.

  • Rip

    Thats funny, how our society thinks there is a 'look'for an individual of a country, other than the blatant Chinese, Japanese, etc. Is there a'look' for jewish ppl, or are they discriminated against strickly because of false history, or true history for that matter, who cares if the jewish ancestors killed Jesus anyway? How many romans killed jews, and the 'world' doesn't hate Italians? WHy Why WHy???? ...and I'm Italian staying nuetral.

  • deox

    I give this movie 6 out of 10.
    Kind of a bedroom science and it does not really give and answer at the end.

  • Helena

    Really interesting documentary, but the "tests" they do to prove things is just not relevant for the story. One example is the spearthrusting. The only thing the experiment show is that if you use a have object in this particular way, then you should be more muscular on one side. But is say nothing about how they know only this kind of spears were used. Or if there can be any other explanation for the apperance of the sceleton. It feels a little phoney with this b-experimemts surronding experts and scientists.

  • Helena

    Btw, if there was something they did not need to throw money on, it was the cold water/loss of heat experiment. Why? We know how cold and bloodflow works. Wasted time on an experiment that again had nothing to do with the real question. It only showed us what we alredy know to be true about the human body, and there were no more questions whether there could be additional explenations

  • Latisha

    Remains of the "savages" were being found all over Europe? Really? That is horribly moronic. Neanderthals weren’t so far from ourselves. Why is it that sensationalists insist on pretending that these people went around crying “Ook? Ook Ook!”

    Neanderthals had complex societies, made complex tools and had language. They also weren't particularly hairy, nore were stupid, so why try and paint them as such? It’s this mentality towards “the other” that maintains racism in our current society - that a society different from our own must be sub human or primitive. They might not be Cro Magnon man, however, they were still a complex and an intelligent people.

    They were advanced for their time, like the people of the Renaissance were advanced for their time, and like we are advanced for our time. They also lived /insanely/ long ago, while still being able to do things like make glue out of birch bark and use medicines, and have a society. The complexity of the tools found means that they had to have had language as there would have been no other way to pass this information along to others. There is also evidence they gathered in large groups of 150 people on intervals of time.

    Savages? Hardly.

  • Kathleen

    Ok,... so... modern humans had to do away with the Neanderthal because of their loud annoying voices. Although brutish, I think it may have been for the best.

  • melly666

    Neanderthal Man + aliens = humans......I've cracked it! :)

  • Nick Reynolds

    I think the Native Austrailian Aborigines look quite a bit like the Neanderthal. Does anyone else think they do?

  • melly666

    Yes they do a little Nick.

  • Ben

    Terrible documentary. Recent evidence has found that Europeans and Asians share up to 5% of their DNA with Neanderthals, suggesting they were outbred. There's your conclusion and I didn't have to ask any actors to ponce about in the woods to get to it.

  • High Voltage

    @Latisha - I think he was using the term "savages" in an ironic way to represent the world view of Neanderthals by science at the time of these discoveries.
    The documentary seems to do it's best to dispel these notions as you watch it further. I almost stopped at that point too before I thought a little harder on it, I'm assuming you did stop there?

    But you should watch it if only to see the hilarious voice coach session, it could be straight out of a Monty Python sketch!

  • mishka

    Man they dribble on. So little information over explained!

  • scappydee

    how did the neandathals get into europe before us

  • http://www.facebook.com/Groovylocks Ella Silver

    there were two exodus out of africa. One earlier (this produced creatures like erectus and peking man and eventually neanderthal) But remember that not all hominids left africa at this time. The ones that stayed behind and survived evolved into modern humans. Then a chunk of THOSE people left africa in the second exodus wave. They, or more accurately WE, almost didn't get out at all. The ice age had locked up a great deal of ocean water in glaciers and africa suffered a great drought as a result. Human beings almost went extinct and this was likely the driving force behind the second exodus.

    I might not be entirely correct but that is the current accepted theory as i understand it.

  • http://www.facebook.com/Groovylocks Ella Silver

    There is an interesting theory as to why we developed our unique and bizarre brains that relates to the theory i was just talking about. That in africa, conditions were SO harsh that certain individuals evolved the ability to think ahead and imagine. So we could envision what might come tomorrow or the next day and learned to plan appropriately. Those who could do this were more likely to attract mates, produce children and, quite simply, not die. The guy who put water away in an egg shell, let's say, and buried it for another day, was much more likely to live longer because he had better strategies. He had the water squirreled away. He thought to do this so he was able to live whereas stupider lines of people didn't think to do this and died off. (Which is how evolution works). So those super-nerds lived on and produced us. A very imaginative and rational creature..

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Josh-Wild/529165470 Josh Wild

    @Riley Rampant
    Your assumptions of how Neanderthal admixture would effect some modern day people in such a negative way is probably incorrect. Many Paleoanthropologists have found the average brain capacity of Homo Sapiens to be smaller than that of the Homo Neanderthalensis. Remember that, whilst it is not always the case, brain size often provides an estimation of ones intelligence. It is likely that their minds may have operated differently, though whether they were biased towards mathematics, animal psychology or creativity we may never know.
    Your idea of Neanderthals being loud and unbearable with foul breath could be considered a racist preconception when you consider that the majority of members of some ethnic groups hold no Neanderthal genetics at all.
    As more evidence is uncovered, showing the surprising sophistication of the Neanderthals, I hope the general belief of them being brutish, inferior apes will be forgotten. One theory relating to their relatively sudden demise suggests that the 'invading' Homo Sapiens hordes obliterated their Neanderthal neighbours.

    @Nick Reynolds
    The recently discovered 'Homo Denisovans' are believed to have contributed to the Melanesians (The Koori, Papuans etc) genome, rather than Neanderthal admixture.

    @Ella Silver
    Very accurate to the current theories, though theories are subject to change. There is a small debate as to whether Homo Sapiens evolved in and around Israel at the moment, though this is a theory which will possibly be found to be based on false evidence. It does seem that environmental factors promoted the pathway to our modern intelligence.

    @Scappydee
    The consensus is that Neanderthals evolved from the European & perhaps North African populous of Homo Heidelbergensis, a much earlier species.

  • TestTickle

    i miss neanderthal man. since i visited natural history museums when i was little, i always thot of him as the good guy and the modern man as selfish and cruel. not very scientific, i know. but i still feel sad that he's gone and think the wrong species survived.
    he had an irritating voice, tho! i bet he hummed and whistled.

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_E3KEDYRRCB3HFMELVMVSCZ7S54 Dragonheartdoxies

    Not just Europeans & Asians(includes the Native peoples of the Americas), Jews, Arabs, Polynesians.

  • hopetothefuture

    Wonder how old this is, I know recent research HAS found Neanderthals dna in ours

  • morty62

    I wish that still happened today. There is a serious need to thin the gene pool.

  • joshexplore

    Enter Homosapian – the battle for mastery (short story)

    Outside the cave the world was a savage place. The rules of life were simple; fight or be fought; eat or be eaten, kill or be killed – there was no love nor harmony, only a battle for survival. The Neanderthal stepped cautiously into the light, his eyes scanning the stretch of white trees that seemed to frown over the frozen river, ominously arching on either side. His stumpy legs shuffled forward onto the cave-lip, while the icy wind attacked and whipped against his body. The cruel world was signing out its call. Yet this was not a call of kindness, but instead, the malicious howl of nature in the lifeless struggle of an ice-age.

    Almost every instinct screamed at the Neanderthal, telling him to return to his lair to keep warm. Yet a deep stinging had spread over his mind over the last few days, until it screamed out in palpable pain; this was the sting of hunger.

    After climbing down the slope that lead to his cave, he took shelter under a clump of pine trees near to the edge of the frozen river. Here the air was calmer, as the shaggy branches acted as a shelter from the howling wind. Looking up towards the powdery white boughs, he searched for signs of life.

    The laws of the frozen wild are tough. The weaker creatures perish in the hostility, and without the qualities of cunning and wit; they soon become wiped out of existence. Yet, despite the savagery of the world, the strongest creatures always salvage survival – and with this audacious ability to remain alive, it comes with it, a canny ability to remain unseen. So the Neanderthal found nothing, not a single movement, nor a whisper amongst the trees. Hence he trudged on forward through the wilderness; his deep hunger gnawing incessantly inside.

    As he searched on, he began to let his mind wander. It was a hopeful day dream, and it gave him great belief that he will finish the day with food. He thought of how his species alone is the only animal that is intuitive enough to enforce their strength through dead things. He did not resort to biting or scratching like the other animals in the frozen world. Instead, he had used the sturdiness of branches and the sharpness of rocks as a substitute for fangs and claws.

    Snapping out of his reverie, the Neanderthal saw something shoot across a pillar of tress. It moved with a silent swiftness, disappearing into the wilderness before his eyes had time to fully adjust. Tightening the grip of his spear, the Neanderthal felt a rush of energy surge through him. Every colour intensified; every sound became more acute; every smell clearer.
    ….

    There is a patience that marks dominance in the wild, and it is such patience that leads to survival. It is the persistence of the wolf as it entices its prey forward, never edging to close, yet never straying too far away. The wolf delays the attack long enough for the rest of the wolf-pack to arrive, where they then devour into the meaty flesh of the prey, ripping it open with savage victory.

    This patience belonged to the Neanderthal as he stood in the forest, doggedly waiting for the slightest sign of the creature. And with such patience, he eventually saw it. Bright yellow eyes blinked within a spruce bush only a few meters ahead. He knew that with his weapon he could defeat any creature that inhabits the frozen land, and so he stared directly at the spot of where he knew the creature resided. A series of screams bellowed from the Neanderthals throat, and he waved his spear to show his readiness to fight. The creature responded with equal willingness, sliding its way through the leaves; its great white paws pressing into the snow; its two saber-tooth fangs glinting with ferocity.

    In a flash, both Neanderthal and Saber-tooth tiger knew it. It was the time of death. The battle will reach a bloody end and only one creature will survive. Only one creature will get to chew on thick flesh of another, tasting their warm and bubbly blood. As they circled about the trees, snarling and assessing one another, patiently waiting for the right moment to strike, nature watched keenly. For over the vast whiteness, a ghostly silence brooded over the battle ground. The wind had stopped and mother earth peered down expectantly –waiting to see who was the most dominant and adaptive of her children.

    With unimaginable speed, the tiger leapt forward into the air, its claws outstretched and its razor sharp teeth bearing brutality. Instinctively, the Neanderthal raised his spear out high in front of him, waiting for the Saber-tooth to land down and pierce into his weapon. Yet it never happened. Only centimetres before the belly of the tiger was from touching the Neanderthal’s spearhead, something struck from the side and pierced into the body of the tiger. The sheer speed and velocity of the intruding object knocked the tiger off course and it spun in the air, collapsing onto the earth in an awkward heap. The Neanderthal looked down in confusion, watching as the snowy ground changed into a slushy red while blood oozed out of its wound. Sticking into the tigers gut was another spear, yet it seemed oddly different. Unlike his which was fairly short and thick, this one was much longer and thinner. The Neanderthal then felt a surge of panic rush through him, yet it was nothing compared to the terror when he looked up and saw the intruder; it was then that the Neanderthal experienced the return of an old companion; fear.

    The Neanderthal’s mind flashed a thousand memories as he tried to recall any previous encounter with such a creature – yet there was nothing. Instead, he scrutinised it with a reserved transfixion. At a distance, it looked strangely familiar to his species, yet when it moved closer, notable differences could be seen. It was taller than him, yet it possessed less sinew. Its skin was darker and less hair covered its body. The Neanderthals feet suddenly became locked onto the earth; frozen by fear. There was an instinct inside him that screamed at him to fight, yet a more rational predisposition told him to run. But the ancient companion of fear simply kept him locked there, and he remained in his spot, frozen and unable to move, much like the icy world around him.

    The mysterious creature stopped only a few meters in front of him, and the Neanderthal stared into its deep and intelligent eyes. The spheres of its soul showed little savagery, but at the same time, a dominance and wisdom more powerful than anything he had ever witnessed before spoke within them.

    Both creatures had no conscious knowledge of death, but like all animals in the wild, they acquired deaths instincts. Death represented itself as the greatest of pain, as the worst of all punishments, and the greatest mystery of the unknown. And it was in that moment, when Neanderthal and Homosapain stood face to face on the snowy stage for the very first time, that mother earth knew a sanguine battle for mastery would follow. Both species desired such mastery, yet the unforgiving laws of the wild will never allow it to be shared. Coalition was not conceivable. There will only ever be one winner; for that is the prime rule of nature.

  • joshexplore

    Enter Homosapian – the battle for mastery (short story)

    Outside the cave the world was a savage place. The rules of life were simple; fight or be fought; eat or be eaten, kill or be killed – there was no love nor harmony, only a battle for survival. The Neanderthal stepped cautiously into the light, his eyes scanning the stretch of white trees that seemed to frown over the frozen river, ominously arching on either side. His stumpy legs shuffled forward onto the cave-lip, while the icy wind attacked and whipped against his body. The cruel world was signing out its call. Yet this was not a call of kindness, but instead, the malicious howl of nature in the lifeless struggle of an ice-age.

    Almost every instinct screamed at the Neanderthal, telling him to return to his lair to keep warm. Yet a deep stinging had spread over his mind over the last few days, until it screamed out in palpable pain; this was the sting of hunger.

    After climbing down the slope that lead to his cave, he took shelter under a clump of pine trees near to the edge of the frozen river. Here the air was calmer, as the shaggy branches acted as a shelter from the howling wind. Looking up towards the powdery white boughs, he searched for signs of life.

    The laws of the frozen wild are tough. The weaker creatures perish in the hostility, and without the qualities of cunning and wit; they soon become wiped out of existence. Yet, despite the savagery of the world, the strongest creatures always salvage survival – and with this audacious ability to remain alive, it comes with it, a canny ability to remain unseen. So the Neanderthal found nothing, not a single movement, nor a whisper amongst the trees. Hence he trudged on forward through the wilderness; his deep hunger gnawing incessantly inside.

    As he searched on, he began to let his mind wander. It was a hopeful day dream, and it gave him great belief that he will finish the day with food. He thought of how his species alone is the only animal that is intuitive enough to enforce their strength through dead things. He did not resort to biting or scratching like the other animals in the frozen world. Instead, he had used the sturdiness of branches and the sharpness of rocks as a substitute for fangs and claws.

    Snapping out of his reverie, the Neanderthal saw something shoot across a pillar of tress. It moved with a silent swiftness, disappearing into the wilderness before his eyes had time to fully adjust. Tightening the grip of his spear, the Neanderthal felt a rush of energy surge through him. Every colour intensified; every sound became more acute; every smell clearer.
    ….

    There is a patience that marks dominance in the wild, and it is such patience that leads to survival. It is the persistence of the wolf as it entices its prey forward, never edging to close, yet never straying too far away. The wolf delays the attack long enough for the rest of the wolf-pack to arrive, where they then devour into the meaty flesh of the prey, ripping it open with savage victory.

    This patience belonged to the Neanderthal as he stood in the forest, doggedly waiting for the slightest sign of the creature. And with such patience, he eventually saw it. Bright yellow eyes blinked within a spruce bush only a few meters ahead. He knew that with his weapon he could defeat any creature that inhabits the frozen land, and so he stared directly at the spot of where he knew the creature resided. A series of screams bellowed from the Neanderthals throat, and he waved his spear to show his readiness to fight. The creature responded with equal willingness, sliding its way through the leaves; its great white paws pressing into the snow; its two saber-tooth fangs glinting with ferocity.

    In a flash, both Neanderthal and Saber-tooth tiger knew it. It was the time of death. The battle will reach a bloody end and only one creature will survive. Only one creature will get to chew on thick flesh of another, tasting their warm and bubbly blood. As they circled about the trees, snarling and assessing one another, patiently waiting for the right moment to strike, nature watched keenly. For over the vast whiteness, a ghostly silence brooded over the battle ground. The wind had stopped and mother earth peered down expectantly –waiting to see who was the most dominant and adaptive of her children.

    With unimaginable speed, the tiger leapt forward into the air, its claws outstretched and its razor sharp teeth bearing brutality. Instinctively, the Neanderthal raised his spear out high in front of him, waiting for the Saber-tooth to land down and pierce into his weapon. Yet it never happened. Only centimetres before the belly of the tiger was from touching the Neanderthal’s spearhead, something struck from the side and pierced into the body of the tiger. The sheer speed and velocity of the intruding object knocked the tiger off course and it spun in the air, collapsing onto the earth in an awkward heap. The Neanderthal looked down in confusion, watching as the snowy ground changed into a slushy red while blood oozed out of its wound. Sticking into the tigers gut was another spear, yet it seemed oddly different. Unlike his which was fairly short and thick, this one was much longer and thinner. The Neanderthal then felt a surge of panic rush through him, yet it was nothing compared to the terror when he looked up and saw the intruder; it was then that the Neanderthal experienced the return of an old companion; fear.

    The Neanderthal’s mind flashed a thousand memories as he tried to recall any previous encounter with such a creature – yet there was nothing. Instead, he scrutinised it with a reserved transfixion. At a distance, it looked strangely familiar to his species, yet when it moved closer, notable differences could be seen. It was taller than him, yet it possessed less sinew. Its skin was darker and less hair covered its body. The Neanderthals feet suddenly became locked onto the earth; frozen by fear. There was an instinct inside him that screamed at him to fight, yet a more rational predisposition told him to run. But the ancient companion of fear simply kept him locked there, and he remained in his spot, frozen and unable to move, much like the icy world around him.

    The mysterious creature stopped only a few meters in front of him, and the Neanderthal stared into its deep and intelligent eyes. The spheres of its soul showed little savagery, but at the same time, a dominance and wisdom more powerful than anything he had ever witnessed before spoke within them.

    Both creatures had no conscious knowledge of death, but like all animals in the wild, they acquired deaths instincts. Death represented itself as the greatest of pain, as the worst of all punishments, and the greatest mystery of the unknown. And it was in that moment, when Neanderthal and Homosapain stood face to face on the snowy stage for the very first time, that mother earth knew a sanguine battle for mastery would follow. Both species desired such mastery, yet the unforgiving laws of the wild will never allow it to be shared. Coalition was not conceivable. There will only ever be one winner; for that is the prime rule of nature.

  • lewis maiden

    The whole notion of a savage world; either eat or be eaten, kill or be killed is an ideology that has existed for thousands of years; embedded deeply in paranoid-schizophrenic psyche of the "Neanderthaloid-Caucusoid" subconsciousness today. The Neanderthal has gone extinct is a bunch of hog-wash. A cover up of the embaraassment that modern white Europeans/Americans try to dismiss over their beast-like ancestry; especially after parading the erath that they are superior over other human beings. In fact, possibly the modern Neanderthal is actually the one who's sub-human, hu-man, a hue from man. Man being of Africa, Southern and Far South and East Asia including the aborigines and South Pacific Realm. The Neanderthal has never been anything but evil, albino, brute half man and half beast. The ideology of conquering another human race by way of killing, oppressing, raping, and taken of other resources albeit slavery, gold, diamonds, and now oil. What do you know? The Neanderthal-Caucusoid is still rampant as ever and we would be fools to think otherwise. Last note, I find it interesting that most of the post which have been presented here takes the position to glorify this infectious monster. Attempts have been made to create this beast as almost human. Its interesting how some will go all out to protect the notion of habits of this monsterous of a thing as a "gentle creature..." but modern humans that are impoverished and opressed, down trotted throughout the "inner cities" ghettos, favelas, shanty towns, villages across the world are seen as savages. It's very interesting how the oppressed has become the oppressor and how these monsters have reaped hell on the earth by stealing man's garden of eden and "trading"their world of dark, scary, cold, rat and waste infested caves of Europe and Asia Minor in the forms of ghettos. This too will pass....

    l.m.

  • mammalia

    Interesting ideas...and funny that you are communicating in an incredibly wide-spread and sophisticated language, hmmm, one that has actually developed from these 'Neanderthal-Caucasoids' to whom you refer, and somehow spread everywhere from the terrible beastly albino badlands of North-west Europe. You are communicating your thoughts through a sophisticated technologically advanced system of mechanisms involving electricity, computation and telecommunication etc. - also of essentially 'Neanderthal-Caucasoid' origin, and solely designed, I can only imagine, to oppress all those of the lineage of 'Real Man' of non-European origin. You probably make use of Western medicine and the accompanying technology, or even if you avoid it out of principle - you would no doubt do so in the event of a life-threatening illness or accident. Of course this system is just another ploy to harm all life on Earth. Yet questions remain: why were the genetically-abominable 'albino beasts' able to purchase slaves from West Africa for America from African slave-traders if cruelty and slavery were not already present in African societies also? I could go on all day...but you'd have to be pretty willfully ignorant not to notice the propensity for cruelty throughout human history and amongst the whole host of races that inhabit our planet. The 'Neanderthal-Caucasoids' have been incredibly efficient, industrious, exploitative, adventurous, and yes often ruthless and cruel in dominating the world in a very calculated way, and as you say they are still 'rampant' in their influence in the world. Are they beasts though? Are they non-human? Of course the neanderthal - 'this beast' - is more than 'almost' human if it was able to breed with humans! I can understand someone being unimpressed with the ethical conduct of Europeans through history, but questioning their status as humans is simply asinine.

  • supermassivedec

    wat a load of crap u want sombody 2 read it make a valid point

  • AT

    I feel the only brutish half beast thing round here is what you pass off as an opinion for others to read. Nothing of your post is based on anything other than a racist bigotry. Maybe you should look up some facts about human evolution before commenting on it.

  • SteveofSF

    Europe would seem to be the harsher environment compared to Africa. Neanderthal, living in Europe, would need foresight more. Isn't it more likely that homo sapiens, who moved out of Africa, down the coast of Arabia, India, southeast Asia, and, a smaller group, north and then west, were moving people who needed to adapt to a bunch of different environments, and learned to be more quickly adaptable. Perhaps learned cooperation to hunt large and new animals. Neanderthal was not so stressed, had lived where they lived for long.

  • Devon Griffiths

    I think it is more than just a case of learning to be adaptable. All of the population outside of Africa stems from just a fragment of the African gene pool - that is to say, genetic diversity outside of Africa is quite low by comparison (even today).

    The reason for this is probably the difficulty of crossing the Sinai. Probably, only a small number of individuals were capable of making the crossing. These individuals would have been among the most genetically fit (that is, adaptable) of the African population at that time.

  • http://www.facebook.com/nathancory Nathan Cory

    I kind of enjoyed his point of view. He DOES have some valid points

  • http://www.facebook.com/nathancory Nathan Cory

    Not that I agree but hey, it's only an opinion

  • http://twitter.com/chainreact1981 Bob Robinson

    Be afraid be very afraid we will eat you and your children.. num num num num

  • Wanderlei

    The fact is negroes and aboriginal of australia are less evolved sub species of homo sapien sapiens but we cannot admit the fact or might hurt the feelings of blacks.

  • Kateye70

    Maybe so--or maybe you're just feeling a little butt-hurt that you can't claim "superiority" over other humans and don't quiiite correctly grasp the concept of evolution.

    (Hint: Natives of every continent have been evolving exactly the same length of time as every other native of every other continent. In fact, so has every other species extant on this planet--and it ain't only been for 6,000 years!)

  • Wanderlei

    Thats not true australian aboriginals have been isolated for over 60,000 years.

    They have many similarities to Homo erectus. While some may claim interbreeding between homo sapiens and neanderthals, the same is possible with aboriginals and homo erectus.

    Negroes are objectively much less successful than Caucasian, this is beyond debate. Whether its because they are sub species or just less evolved is a matter for debate.

    To quote the great man Charles Darwin;
    "Since the dawn of history the Negro has owned the continent of Africa – rich beyond the dream of poet’s fancy, crunching acres of diamonds beneath his bare black feet and yet he never picked one up from the dust until a white man showed to him its glittering light.

    His land swarmed with powerful and docile animals, yet he never dreamed a harness, cart, or sled.

    A hunter by necessity, he never made an axe, spear, or arrowhead worth preserving beyond the moment of its use. He lived as an ox, content to graze for an hour.

    In a land of stone and timber he never sawed a foot of lumber, carved a block, or built a house save of broken sticks and mud.

    With league on league of ocean strand and miles of inland seas, for four thousand years he watched their surface ripple under the wind, heard the thunder of the surf on his beach, the howl of the storm over his head, gazed on the dim blue horizon calling him to worlds that lie beyond, and yet he never dreamed a sail.”

  • Kateye70

    /facepalm

    Edit: DNA proves that neither Africans nor native Australians are anything other than Homo Sapiens Sapiens. Oh, wait, Darwin didn't know about DNA. Well, that explains *that.* Doesn't explain *you,* though....

  • Kel Knight

    Lewis, you're an ignorant fool. Neanderthals were no more beasts than any other human alive at the time. You go on about Neanderthals "conquering another human race by way of killing, oppressing, raping..." as if you have no clue that the currently accepted theory is that homo sapiens aka anatomically modern humans, who allegedly evolved solely in sub Saharan Africa (in spite of no convincing fossil or genetic evidence), were the ones who conquered, overwhelmed and eventually drove into extinction all Neanderthals. So, brutha's got it twisted up in here. Bottom line is Neanderthals are early Eurasians, plain and simple. Sub Saharan Africans are cousins to the Eurasians. Yes, were are all the same umbrella species, part of the human race, but we represent various sub species. Lewis, you're obviously bitter that it is the European who has the longest established historical record of exploration, conquering, expanding, establishing, and ruling. It is what it is. That said, the hunter gatherer populations that still exist in places like sub Saharan Africa (yet virtually nowhere in Europe, for instance) might seem like Stone Age throwbacks, but their lives and humanity are of no less value than a white European. Simply acknowledging the accomplishments (or lack thereof) of the various races or global populations does not render one a racist; tying accomplishment to human value does. You, Lewis Maiden, are a deluded racist.

  • Kel Knight

    The concept that all sub species of the human race have evolved in perfect, uniform lockstep is an unfounded fantasy with no basis in legitimate science. I defy you to find a single population of European hunter gatherers dressed in little more than loin clothes. You won't, because none exist. But they still do exist in sub Saharan Africa. Which is ok, I'm sure they are wonderful people, and certainly their primitive lifestyle does not mean they are worth less than even the most educated, sophisticated European. However, their existence does suggest and offer evidence of the various rates of evolution found among different populations.

  • Kel Knight

    Kateye, I agree with you that Australians and Africans are homo sapiens but please think twice about stating what DNA definitively does or does not "prove." Population genetics is still in its relative infancy and so many assumptions, mistakes and facepalm-style conclusions drawn from genetic data, that we need to still tread cautiously and avoid bold statements.

  • atweb

    first: there is no such thing as "less evolved.
    second: our species has no recognised subspecies.
    third:
    it is likiest the the aboriginal are the closest of us to those human
    who left east Africa to colonise the world and so are really the
    archetype of our species
    fourth: in Africa, after some humans left to
    diversity and colonise, and even interbreed with our humanoid species,
    humans went on evolving into a form that is better adapted to the modern
    African climate. That is hardly a lesser form of human,

  • atweb

    our species arrived in Autralia aorund 60,000 year ago but was not isolated. for much of the time the sea level was low and crossings wil have been possible to SE Asia.
    Aboriginals have no more similarities to Homo erectus than Caucasians Indeed as our knowledge of how erectus varied is weak, we can;lt really make such comparisons. Anatomically there is no connection.
    Africans are very successful They thrive in a hostile climate as the top predator. When you mention success you seem to be using modern western technology as the yardstick, but that has been around a very short time and its success has not yet been determined. In fact global warming may bring it to an end. Our species is equally successful across the planet.
    Your Darwin quote is irrelevant. He was highly knowledgeable but in his lifetime the understanding of human evolution was low, mostly because of religious prejudice against such an idea.

  • atweb

    romantic but probably innacurate. It seems that humans throughout our quick evolution have been exceptionally violent. It is unlikely that Neanderthals were different, especially as they were able to hunt and kill large prey. at best, their low population density made for less conflict over territory, but they would have been equally as mean as us.,

  • atweb

    You obviously have something of a warped grudge against white caucasians and you allow this to dictate your reasoning, making up "facts" where none fit your bias,, I actually once role-played a character like you; positioning his whole ethos on blaming NW europeans. Its darkly amusing to actually find someone who fits the joke persona i created.
    sir.. you are, in my view, a buffoon!

  • bdoon

    You all are crazy. It is like arguing over who is cooler and more powerfull, Superman or Green Lantern. there is so little known about man's origns . Yes there is evdience pointing to all human evolution (including Neanderthals or their ancestors) coming out of Africa but it is inclusionary evidence, not exclusionary and only DNA-based, I believe. This evidence points heavily to African orgin but cannot be used to exclude all other possibilities. Doesn't DNA evidence which points to Africa also rule out ape ancestors?
    What I find mind-boggling is that if modern man evolved 100,000 years ago why did it take 90,000 years before so-called civilization? Also I doubt modern man wiped out Neanderthals...they were too strong and adapted . Also they say modern man evolved from Neanderthals. They also say Neanderthals were dark in Africa but evolved white skin in Europe. Who knows?
    All these so-called "facts" about early man are like saying you know what a 500 page book is about because you found and read one page.

  • atweb

    This is because the out of Africa group actually looked rather like the aboriginals of Australasia. Since then that out of Africa populations changed and developed into the non African variations we have today. Is it surprising that the African population also changed to adapt to their changed environment

  • atweb

    The evidence for the out of Africa theory is powerful because of the DNA information, not in spite of it., There is no credible alternative as it stands. And no , The DNA evidence does not rule out ape ancestors one bit.
    humans have developed too use and then other skills over a long time. Our natural lifestyle has been of semi-nomadic social groups occupying large territories as hunter gatherers. The development of farming and civilisation occurred very late because it required a water rich interglacial period where population sizes increased to allows such arrangements to be stable
    Modern man did not evolve from Neanderthals but there was interbreeding.. Neanderthals were not in Africa but evolved from Homo heidelbergensis seperately to modern humans and have the genetics for pale skin which is an advantage in northern climes.

  • Danny

    ever heared of egypt? Of ethiopia? Of Nubia? The Moors reigning over southern europe for 1000 years?In fact europeans took rather long to become civilized. European success is just a couple of hundred years old. You are the perfect example of the primitive nature of humans today.