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Introduction to Permaculture Design

2009, Environment  -   62 Comments

Permaculture is a system for sustainable living on Earth that benefits all creatures and supplies all the needs of humanity.

Present systems are failing miserably: resource depletion, water storage, degraded landscape, food shortage, climate change.

All these things are negative and we don't need to focus on them completely, but we need to look at how we can positively design our way out of this problem.

How we can come up with solutions that will supply all our needs, benefit the environment, and create absolute abundance. A designed system that gives you a positive view on the future, something that you can engage in and feel meaningful.

Based on the 72-hour Permaculture Design Certificate Course as devised by Bill Mollison, join Geoff Lawton as he takes you into the world of Permaculture Design and introduces you to a new way of looking at the world.

Learn how to apply your design skills by observing, analyzing and harmonizing with the patterns of Nature. Discover the theory and then see the examples in action in this unique video.

Essential information for anyone interested in learning more about Permaculture and how they can apply it in their daily lives to create sustainable abundance.

Ratings: 7.84/10from 62 users.

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62 Comments / User Reviews

  1. jahaja

    So what happens if everyone becomes self-sufficient and only produces what they need, when a natural disaster or a war hits and puts an entire region's balance out of whack? Where do you get food from if everyone else is busy only feeding themselves? Self-sufficiency is a nice concept but any system that doesn't exist within a wider network of redundant connections is too weak to sustain any blow it might get.

  2. jillzzzz

    Community-based living can benefit everyone. If everyone believed
    This is the only planet we have. We must evolve and learn to serve everything we have been given so that service is returned 100 times.
    Excellent video, for the times ahead will not sustaine us. Thank you for an in depth look at, what's possible. It's not about $, it's about human
    Energy. I'd much rather contribute all I have to a place like this than anything else.

  3. Zorocano78

    Since the start of the petro chemical industry population increased by over 6 billion in just over a hundred years. The defacto "elite" idiots on this planet would have us all convinced we are overpopulated and that mono crops and big pharma are the only way to grow food. In this respect much of our earth is privately owned and controlled, and raped by totally wasteful profit maximising methods. This there fore explains the need for the earth to be returned to the people. But! there is a big problem with the people, because we have a totally absurd materialistic nature and define our success by the expense and luxury of our material acquisitions. So how can a vastly material species ever hope to aquire an attitude as presented in this docu? Well for starters we need a shift in conscious thinking, without that we are screwed. Take a trip into any city and look at the people there who have no contact with the natural world.....most of them are idiots chasing a job towards some material goal that has nothing to do with sustainability. In fact I would go as far as saying that 90% of people in cities rarely think about a subject like permaculture unless it happens to be on their TV. But if you could convince all 7 billion people to give up their desire for material goods and return to the earth, then there is plenty of land out there that can be divided up, and if all of us (given we are talking about the miracle of us all being in tune with the ideal of permaculture) worked together we could essentially create a garden of eden to use the cliché (I am not religious btw). However, I would say that as we are living in a system where we have super rich idiots running the show, with a severely mentally disturbed middle class aspiring to be like those super rich idiots, with a poor population on this planet that both despises and aspires to have what they don't, then we are urinating into a hurricane. So how do we achieve this permacultural utopia? Simple.... we don't. The reason for this is that the oil industry will collapse, the elites will roll out their new power sources, we will be charged and taxed as always, and they will continue do as they have done until there is nothing left. At which point the system will collapse, the elite will try to maintain control, they will fail, and the system will consume itself in a holocaust. Billions will die and waste we leave behind will render this earth completely un usable. millions of years, when man kind is no longer here the earth will return to its own intelligent permacultural design because that is exactly what nature is in its own right..... A self sustaining biosphere where every single organism plays its part in something we have never understood, and have divided ourselves from. We have assumed dominion over the earth and we assume to maintain an arrogant attitude. Even to the point that we assume to maintain the ideal that we can still shape nature and it will be ok, because we had some design behind creating a system to mimic what was already there? Sounds like we need to wake up......

  4. Tom Holloway

    is permaculture put forward as an alternative system to agriculture, or a hobby for well-to-do hippies?

    1. rodrigo

      What do you "think" genius?!

    2. Kelly

      Anyone who would ask this question desperately NEEDS to be educated.

  5. L993

    the docu is ok but it could have been shorter. Mostly the sentences are repeating. The strenght of permaculture is obvious but I do have one question:
    Where in this world of gardens and villages do the car/solar panel/computor industries exist?

    From my viewpoint the goal of permaculture is to revive the rural society and make it less dependent on science. Towns clearly have their part to contribute. And so another goal is to reduce the scale of towns and bring most people back on land. Because I don't see Hong Kong being fed with surplus to be honest...

    1. cheeky_dog

      if people slowly start to use permaculture and EVERYONE does it, then maybe hong kong can be fed on surplus.

    2. jahaja

      And where would you put all those gardens and zones in HK??? Or implement this in Northern Scandinavia?
      This system is really nice but only works in underpopulated regions with favourable climates. For the rest, we need different solutions. It can't work for everyone.

    3. ryan

      post fossil fuel humane die-off is an important concept. populations of viable capacity will emerge everywhere.

  6. Actof Courage

    Great video. Get back to basics Permaculture can be done on any scale as small as 300 sq feet

  7. saturn

    Absolutely amazing, but is it possible for every one to do this? Not every one owns a piece of land like this guy.

  8. brianrose87

    I took a 30 day Permaculture Design Certification Course at the Lama Foundation north of Taos, New Mexico a couple of years ago.

    One thing I have learned as I implement Permacultural principles on my own property (I also have a B.S. in Biology, which helps) is that creating a self-sustaining system is front loaded with vast quantities of labor. Importing soil, mulch, manure, plants, building burms, ferrocement cistern for roof water harvesting, etc. On top of these fixed, one time, infrastructure investments there is a need for constant fiddling as your food forest grows from seedlings into a canopy.

    I now have pomegranate, mango, pineapple, grapefruit, jujube, cherry of the rio grande, feijoa, kumquat, moringa, blueberry, strawberry, mulberry, raspberry, banana, type A and B avocado, jaboticaba, white sapote, orange, fig, carissa, and papaya, as well as an 800 sq ft garden. On top of all these edible specimens I've planted an assortment of perennial flowering plants to attract various beneficial insects, and fast growing vegetative plants for chop and drop purposes.

    Permaculture takes a systems design approach to organic farming, which broadens our categorical thinking. Many people keep the concept of a "garden" separate from that of an "orchard" or a "timber lot". Permaculture allows our paradigm to shift by taking a step back, and allowing us to see that all of these structures work more efficiently if they co-exist and blend with each other.

  9. wald0

    Pretty good doc, but I don't see a lot different when comparing permaculture to simple organic farming practices. I live on farm of about eighty acres, not large enough to be commercial but too large to call a small family farm. We were pretty much already practicing most of what he is recommending without knowing it was called "permaculture". We just called it farming, and went about it as efficiently as possible. We didn't really "design" systems that are cyclic in nature, they just seemed to happen. It took several years for them to develop and stabilize but, now the soil ph controls itself, crop rotation and worm castings keeps nitrogen in the ground, chickens provide aeration and ammonia, and regular, controlled burning provides pot ash. We produce more than enough to feed all of our live stock, ourselves, and produce a surplus for profit. We haves set up three mills- a saw mill, a grist mill, and a sorghum mill. Were not completely self sufficient, but close enough for me.

    One thing this guy said over and over though that kind of bugged me- "A sustainable system is one that produces more energy than it consumes". If I am not mistaken this is impossible. It would be a perpetual motion machine in disguise, basically. Energy is not free, you can't get out more than you put in. In fact as of yet we can't even get all of what we put in back as some is required to simply maintain the system itself. I guess he means you should get back more than what YOU put in yourself. In other words if you spent ten thousand calories working the field you should get at least ten thousand calories out of the food it produces. Believe it or not this isn't an easy thing to achieve consistently. He is dead right, if you don't have some assistance from nature and the proper equipment you will easily spend more calories than you gain working a field.

    1. Imightberiding

      Smart, common sense approach & stewardship of your land & animals. I am aware of some of your earlier struggles in life & financial hardships but count yourself very fortunate to be blessed with the 80 acres you do have. I know it is a lot of hard work to maintain & prosper with such but I should be so lucky to own even a couple acres.

      Good on you. Fair winds & following seas for you on your farm. (completely inappropriate saying for a land lubber)

    2. wald0

      Trust me, I do count my self as fortunate. Technically I don't own it yet though. It will be my inheritance when my father passes, which unfortunately doesn't look so far away. Of course we have been saying that for over two years now and somehow he seems to make it each time we have a scare, thank goodness, but we know the inevitable will happen eventually. I would give two of these farms to keep him forever, but that isn't my choice nor is it possible. I just hope i can be half the man he has been and keep this place going for my kids, if I ever have any that is. If nothing else I would like to have one so someone could keep this place up after i am gone. It would be a shame to die thinking this place is going to rot away and be forgotten.

    3. Drew Thomas Layton McIntosh

      Yeah, you're right that what he said is incorrect, I believe he meant "A sustainable system that produces more energy than we put in." If he did indeed mean that then it's totally plausible. As the first law of thermodynamics indicates, it's only impossible for closed systems to generate more energy than they consume and the Earth, having the Sun as a furnace, is not a closed system and so is not held back by the first law.

    4. Leslie Ann

      Check out Findhorn in Scotland. Permaculture is more than just organic gardening. It is also something that can be carried into city areas where it becomes a more complicated system; but the idea of working with nature, not using nature but working with it. It also includes a change in our idea that we are separate from the planet. Don't be too fast to judge what permaculture means this is just one aspect of it. I do want to thank you for doing what you are doing by organic farming/gardening.

    5. Godspeed311

      Thankfully a large part of the energy a farm needs IS free for us for the next few billion years. I like to think of it as farming sunlight. Putting the practically infinite supply of energy pouring down upon all of us from the heavens to work in ways that make life better for all humans and learning to live off of current sunlight inputs instead of dredging up fossilized sunlight in the form of oil and being so wasteful with it. While it exists, the sun is our way around the idea that you can't get more energy out of an ecological system than you put in. No wonder the ancients all worshiped it!

    6. Tegan Tallullah

      I couldn't agree more with this comment! ''Farming sunlight'' - that's a beautiful term for it. Brilliant.

    7. Pratik Patel

      I agree with you

    8. ryan

      sun energy makes up the difference. fossil fuels help us cheat as it is.

  10. ~Oliver B Koslik Esq

    If I ever go "off the grid"... I'm givin this guy a call!

  11. Douwe Beerda

    A really nice documentary that really explains some of the design principles permaculture is founded on. I think permaculture has a lot to offer to humanity and it would be great if this kind of knowledge became part of eduction systems all around the world.

    For those who like to learn more about permaculture, a whole series of interesting documentaires about it can be found on - Films for Action - where they have a specific subcatogery for permaculture.

  12. Trevis Robotie

    ,,,but for the beasts,so fine

  13. Paul Gloor

    I love it, but how much space does it require to supply for a family of say 5 through seasonal cycles ?

    1. Nickolas

      depends on what you eat and grow.

    2. oQ

      The goal may not be to feed entirely a family from what you grow, but to grow entirely what you can...nice lawns are useless.

  14. Nickolas

    Animal systems? I agree with the philosophy but I fail to see how animal systems of enslavement is sustainable or works with nature. The very act of enslaving an animal to steal it's resource is against nature. Chickens need lots of food and it needs cages because it has been bred to be completely dependent on humans for survival. You need ten times the land to feed chickens to feed off them. This is not in line with permaculture ethics and is not sustainable with present population. Chickens will also eventually make nutritional deficiency in the soil through it's manure cycle. Plants are a much more effective way for fertility of soil because it does not concentrate pollution or nutritional deficiency.

    1. oQ

      You feed your kitchen compost to the chicken and they in return feed your garden, the best way to apply is to make a manure tea. You can also pick up kitchen compost from restaurants.

    2. rg57

      "The very act of enslaving an animal to steal it's resource is against nature"

      OK. Explain why animals do it, then.

    3. Nickolas

      Animals meaning humans? rg57? Please do not confuse hunting with enslavement. Yes you could feed chickens kitchen scraps but you can also compost food scraps. The chicken is another source that takes energy. It is more efficient to bypass that step altogether. Also that chicken will only concentrate pollution from scraps to your garden so it is not ideal. Mushrooms are much more efficient at composting while breaking down pollution the opposite of what animals do.

    4. a_no_n

      Spiders do it...They imprison their victims on their web and keep them alive to keep them fresh.
      There is a fungus that literally Zombifies snails and ants and makes them sit on leaves to that birds can eat them...It does this because the fungus uses bird droppings to spread it's there's another instance of Animals kidnapping other animals.
      Parasites and scavangers are all like this, it's a useful tactic for survival.
      You literally have no idea what you're talking about...Your arguing this new age happy clappy naturism that has no basis in reality or nature!

    5. Trevis Robotie

      cannibals are mentally enslaved by meat,,,,,,this would've been paradise if they had more respect for the animals(by considering them as equals instead of food)

    6. Imightberiding

      Really? . . . did you really just say that? Cannibals? Instead of providing you with the correct word, I'll let you give it a little more thought. You do know how to think? Animals as equals instead of food? Seriously? Were that the case, mankind would have become extinct thousands of years ago.

      It is so easy for a person of relative privilege (that is someone living in a western culture with access to a computer & the internet) to wax poetically about animal "rights" & the virtues of veganism & choices of what to eat. In many countries a single chicken or goat can mean the difference between survival or not for an entire family.

      I believe this doc is about balance, abundance & sustainable living environments. Both vegetables & protein/animals. Not about ridiculous extremes, "Berkeley-esque"philosophies or deprivation of a full healthy life or happiness. Remember; a happy animal is a tasty animal.

    7. P. Dog

      "Berkley-esque?" if you are making a negative comment about the mind set there, at least spell it correctly: Berkeley.

    8. Imightberiding

      Sorry P.Dog. Missed an "e" while typing. Never was my greatest talent. Come to think of it, very few things are my greatest talent. Just to put your mind at ease, I have had the privilege to visit "Berkeley" many times. I lived in the Bay Area for a couple years & also have a few friends who attended school there. I guess I'm attempting albeit rather ineptly that yes, I am just a little bit familiar with the aforementioned local & the over generalized mindset.

      So that I will be able to sleep soundly tonight, I edited my previous comment & corrected the miss-spelling you helpfully pointed out.

    9. wald0

      We got his point, misspelled or not. And he is dead right, in my opinion.

    10. Trevis Robotie

      Imig,'cannibal' is deliberate.I only wanted to emphasize 'carnivore'. your opinion is yours and mine mine......we don't necessarilly have to be wrong or right,it's only a matter of point of views.peace

    11. Trevis Robotie

      I,like you and millions out there,used to see other animals as I have more respect,and I'm still learning every day.if you have a goat, pigor any animal for that matter,as a pet,then you'll see that they possess 'personality'..... you, too may also begin to reason in my direction or stay cannibal-peace

    12. Imightberiding

      I was not discussing "pets" I was referring to animals raised respectfully, comfortably & in relative happiness for the purpose of harvesting the benefits of eggs, dairy, wool etc & ultimately their meat. This has been done for millennia & in some societies as in the case of the Inuit & other indigenous peoples of mostly northern climes & arid desert environments the only source of food for entire populations is meat. Very little if any vegetable matter could possibly thrive or even grow in the environments these people live, raise & herd livestock along with hunting.

      Your use of the word "cannibal" to overemphasize your disdain for the consumption of meat is absurd & nonsensical. I do not, nor do I know anyone who eats human flesh. Animals, let me be perfectly clear on this issue, are not equal to humans. You do not possess any intrinsic knowledge or enlightenment that I do not. I have the utmost respect for all living creatures. I enjoy my life & want to experience as much goodness as possible. That includes all things pork, beef, chicken, seafood & dairy. Oh, I do love vegetables as well. A healthy balance is of the utmost importance in life.

      If you want to be a vegan or vegetarian that is certainly your perogative. What I always find off putting & you did it as well in your comments, is when you pass judgement of others with statements such as: "I used to but I came to my senses" or "I respect animals" (insinuating that I don't) "perhaps one day you too will grow towards my understanding" (as though all veg's have the answer, are enlightened & the rest of us unwashed heathen are lost in our carnal desires).

      I will stop belabouring my issues with vegans & most vegetarians I know & have met. (other than a seemingly universal lacking sense of humour) I will however refer you to one of my favorite authors, former chef, & T.V. host, Anthony Bourdain. With little effort you can source many of his books, comments, opinions, lectures & talks on the subject.

    13. Trevis Robotie

      ok.we need not get all fired up,and you are wrong in thinking that I'm kinda enshrouded in some soughta 'holier than thou' cloak.we don't have to agree on every issue to be cyber love meat,cool. do yo thang and imma do mine.we are here to xpress views.....if my comments bug you,you can always ignore me......and you don't have to be offended 'cause you fall into a category of ppl who may consider themselves a target of a mere expressed opinion....we are all ghosts here,but still we're for real.all we write or read here mean alot and nothing,it all depends on what we make of it.if you wish,next time,before I comment anything,I'll ask your permission-chill n peace

    14. Imightberiding

      Not really fired up. I admit to going on a bit. Sorry. It seems I meet more & more people with easy answers that blatantly ignore the problems of the majority of the rest of the world excepting their little circles of sycophant friends.

      I am in no way including you in this category. Perhaps even one day, should we stumble upon each other we could enjoy a conversation over a big tasty bowl of vegetarian & tofu noodle soup. Mmmm! I might have to make some right now. Delicious!

      I was just taking the p!ss out of you. You stood up for yourself even if your ideas are wrong & you are missing out on so much in life. (he said with a devilish smirk & friendly laugh)


    15. Trevis Robotie

      ....from our different perspectives,'our' ideas are wrong!henceforth I'll call u 'Imightbewrong!'re like my wife(well not quite so)we disagree on food.she's a cannibal too,and always sick!I don't even have the common u got food for thought-ciao amico

    16. wald0

      I am considered a liberal by most, though i would never think of myself as one- I hate these kinds of labels.. I espouse animal rights as well. That said, anything can be taken too far. Animals are cognitively not our equal and therefore most cannot experience pain, loss, fear, etc. as we do. Notice I said they do not experience it as we do, not that they do not experience it at all. As long as these animals are treated with love and respect and provided for while alive, and every piece of it is utilized after we kill it in a humane manner- I see nothing wrong with it. In fact it is a much more pleasurable and longer life than they would experience in the wild where starvation, mutilation, and being eaten alive at a young age are par for the course. People that think like you seem to have never had any experience with real nature and think it is like some Disney fairy tale where all the little animals live in plenty and happiness and never eat nor get eaten by one another. Ever corner a coyote by accident, maybe walk up on a bear without it knowing you where coming- or find yourself in the presence of a predator large enough to see you as food? If you do don't count on them being as confused as you, they know what food is when they see it and they do not question instinct nor empathize with pain.

    17. Nickolas

      You are totally missing the point. This is not an animal rights issue! This is a human survival issue!

    18. Trevis Robotie

      waldo,humane way to take life?u kidding me?!you are free to consume whatever you like.I know folks who adore 'sheet'(don't nobody nag on the spelling ok),and for them it's a xmas treat....they hurt far as I'm concerned,you hurt somebody when you kill any animal.....just put yourself in their stead.keep on eating your meat,but remember that those innocent guys in our plates are also silently and steadily taking us's very convenient for u (us)to deduce animals don't feel like us to justify our insentivity towards them.think again,bro

    19. Imightberiding

      You have obviously never raised chickens. Certainly not in a responsible or sensible way if you ever have. A few free run chickens are very inexpensive to raise & maintain whilst being very prolific at providing for your family, garden/property in several ways. Several chickens & a rooster to ensure the hens keep laying regularly require but a small yard & even smaller coop during the night & colder weather & as a safe & secure place to lay their eggs. The rest is just as oQ points out in her comment below or above.

      Now I know this option is not available to many of us. I presently live in an apartment. Any typically sized city lot however is more than adequate for a sufficient garden as well as chickens if one is fortunate enough to either rent or own a house.

    20. Nickolas

      I have raised chickens before. Letting them run around simply tears up soil and destroys veggies. You have to keep them penned in which requires fencing. You need more land to grow feed for chickens. Most people I know in urban settings supplement chickens with feed from the store. Also most places unless in rural areas ban roosters. Roosters are routinely killed because hens are desired. True you get meat and eggs but at what cost? Again it simply takes more land to raise animals. Otherwise where would they get the energy to survive? It has to come from somewhere. My point is that a true permaculture sustainable system calls for ecosystem restoration where ones meat is acquired not through animal enslavement but through the yields of ecosystems. This ensures sustainable resource consumption and healthy food. Wild salmon is better than farm raised salmon until we destroyed the salmon's ecosystem. Farmed raised Salmon will never be as nutritious as wild salmon. At least the history of animal enslavement has shown domesticated animals are not as nutritious or healthy. Allowing ecosystem restoration and nurturing animal life that is free is the way we need to work with nature. Nature does not know fencing and walls! Let us allow animals to do what they do for us on their own will.

    21. Imightberiding

      I certainly agree with you on the farm raised vs wild salmon issue. Wild salmon is far superior to farm raised in that the texture & flavour far exceeds farm raised. I won't go into the problems that salmon farms pose for the oceans & health of wild fish. Nor will I explore the issues of industry & civilization as a whole on the impact of the ecosystems of wild salmon.

      Suffice it to say, responsible stewardship of our natural resources is of paramount concern.

    22. Michael Brown

      Some very silly points.

      You obviously no very little. Some quick points.

      -Suggesting that pastured chickens will cause "soil nutrient deficiencies" is utterly ludicrous. That's like saying squirrels eating acorns are depleting the forests. Within a mixed grasslands system with healthy soil microbiology and deep-rooted plants to help assist deep nutrient cycling it is no problem. Not unless it's intensively pastured.

      -Both chickens (actually origins of chicken-raising was due to Chinese shamanistic rituals) and pigs were traditionally kept for their ability to forage on marginal lands and to recycle foodscraps into usable energy. Owning cats is not "sustainable" if you feed them bagged kitty chow. Having them feed on field mice is.

      -Domesticated animals can be more nutritious (depending on what markers you use) than wild. Nature can be harsh and routine nutritional deprivation / re-feeding is the norm. I'd take wild salmon over farmed any day.

      -Beasts of burden are immensely helpful in a sustainable system. Ruminants like cows can turn energy locked up in marginal lands (grass = cellulose = glucose) and allow us to channel that into energy that is beneficial for us humans. Once again you're failing to recognize that not land / scenarios are a perfect scenario for cultivation. Try to raise wheat on moorlands / steppes and see what happens.

      If you're an ethical vegan that's cool, but you're just spouting nonsense. Sustainability is wholly congruent with usage of animals as a source of food / labor.

      I garden, fish, hunt, and 4-seasons forage wild food. Not that that makes me god, but I have a lot more direct experience with the nature of this issue than most.

    23. wald0

      Well said and accurate to boot. I have had much the same experience on my farm. I also hunt and fish but, I have never "foraged" anything past a few blueberries, black berries, or wild plums for cobblers and maybe some muscadines and scuppernongs for wine and jelly. I just located a currant tree though, I have never tried one but I hear they are great for jelly. I'm waiting for it to bear fruit.

    24. Nickolas

      When an animal including human ingest food they take from the food what nutrients they need. If there is nutrients in short supply the animal will take what there is and let go of the rest. Chickens like all animal poop concentrate those nutritional voids. Similar to a mono crop it uses the nutrition it needs and wears out soil if other plants are not grown. Yes many cultures raised chickens but they had more land lol it was not in short supply. Yes you could eat a starving animal and it will lack the meat or eat a wild animal drinking god knows what water but evolutionary wise bred animals become weaker not stronger in genetics. Plants are the same way. That is why weeds have nutritional differences especially in omega fats just like animals. Wild animals eat wild food. It is a long term problem not a short term one. Also yes ruminants can be beneficial to the soil in certain numbers. If out of control you have to kill the ecosystems that are there already. You have to kill all the wolves for example. The wolves are crucial to the ecosystems. That is ecosystem destruction regardless of the soil. Also lets not mention the water. It all has to do with numbers vs. land space. Over population of anything is out of balance and nature has a way a fixing that. Actually I am planning on going hunting this year, probably deer. It has been a few years so I think it's time. Really I appreciate conversation that does not include mindless attacks. I appreciate hunters and fisherman. I am against animal agriculture that involves enslavement. Hunters and fishermen and fisher women have more respect for environment than most people I know. It's in their benefit to protect for their food for they depend on it. So I ask what happens when those ecosystems are lost? Again back to the original fact, it takes 10 times the land and water to feed animals to feed people than it does to feed humans plants.

    25. brianrose87

      I believe both of you are actually in agreement.

      One of you if discussing urban chicken raising (Nickolas), and the other rural conditions (Michael Brown).

      Both of you are correct regarding the requirements, pros, and cons of the specific environment you are discussing.

    26. a_no_n

      So...when birds push eggs out of nests and leave their own in it's place...Is that not stealing another animals resource against it's will? When i Lion hunts down a Gazelle, is that not stealing another animals resources?
      Stealing from other Animals has literally been the point of life since it first crawled out of the soup...your Naive limp wristed ramblings about unkind things being against nature, is so far removed from any actual nature it makes me wonder if you've ever stepped foot outside of a city in your entire life,

    27. Jack1952

      Evolution created a world that included animals. As an example, the grasslands of the world included immense herds of millions of grazing animals. It is a symbiotic relationship which includes the plant life, grazers, and predators. Take away one and you throw the whole system out of whack. Look at the desertification of the grasslands that is happening globally today. Our agricultural practices have not included the natural cycle to the detriment of the planet. The only way to restore and maintain a healthy landscape through an agricultural base is to remember how the land evolved into a living and breathing environment in the first place. This includes birds (chickens).

    28. Nickolas

      I agree Jack1952. The only difference is the last two words. birds (chickens) Chickens like many birds used to fly and knew how to protect themselves. Chickens naturally lived in tree tops and would always keep moving never exhausting one area of land. Also in order to enslave chickens for ones own benefit you must destroy all the males. You only need one because if you want eggs you want hens. This is all an unnatural manipulation of an animals reproductive system. You talk about biomimicry which I support but let us not forget how the wild ecosystems are. They are always in migration as not to exhaust one area of land. Look at the differences between free range cattle and Zebra's in Africa. The lions natural predator's keep the Zebra on the move so not to destroy one area of land and essentially create a desert. The areas with Zebra grass grows 6 feet or higher, cattle land remains bare because cows eat faster than the land can repair. Understand if you include birds in an ecosystem and you want to model it after that your birds are not yours they need to be free. Our free range cattle in the U.S. requires the complete annihilation of wolves which has led to a ecosystem collapse of the western U.S. Mostly because there are so many people who demand to eat meat all the time.

  15. Trevis Robotie

    ah,thanx tdf-I know I'm gonna love it

  16. Trevis Robotie

    can't wait to see prima,a tavola !

  17. oQ

    Can't wait to start gardening on my large patio and at the garden out of town.