History of Earth: 4.5 Billion Years

History of Earth: 4.5 Billion Years

2023, Science  -   4 Comments
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The Earth, a staggering 4.5 billion years old, is explored through a unique perspective in which each second represents 1.5 million years. This approach aims to provide a graspable experience of the immense timeline.

Beginning in the Hadean eon, Earth emerges as a fiery landscape with a lava-filled surface and a primarily CO2 atmosphere. The moon is formed during a collision with a Mars-sized object called Theia. As time progresses, the planet undergoes significant transformations. During the Eoarchean, life possibly makes its debut, with the first cells emerging amidst a heavy asteroid bombardment.

The Paleoarchean witnesses the formation of supercontinents and the emergence of Stromatolites, indicating early life. In the Mesoarchean, tectonic plates start shaping the continents, and the absence of plants leads to extreme temperatures.

The Neoarchean sees the rise of Prokaryotes, and the Siderian marks the Great Oxidation Event, introducing large quantities of oxygen to the atmosphere. This triggers ice ages and a freezing period. The Rhyacian follows with volcanic activity and the formation of mountain ranges. In the Orosirian, a massive asteroid impact creates mountainous landscapes.

The Statherian witnesses the formation of the supercontinent Columbia and the awakening of a natural nuclear reactor. The Calymmian sees the emergence of Eukaryotic cells and the thickening of Earth's crust. The Ectasian marks the formation of Earth's inner core.

In the Stenian, algae possibly invent sex, and the Tonian sees the rise of unicellular predators and the dominance of eukaryotes. The Cryogenian witnesses another freeze-over, while the Ediacaran sees the formation of the supercontinent Gondwana and the emergence of multicellular organisms.

The Cambrian explosion, approximately 539 million years ago, leads to diverse life forms, followed by the Silurian, where plants alter the atmosphere. The Devonian witnesses the adaptation of flora and fauna to land, and the Carboniferous showcases peak forest and marshland growth.

The Permian introduces Pangea and a mass extinction event. The Triassic marks the rise of dinosaurs, leading to the Jurassic, an age dominated by reptiles. The Cretaceous becomes a paradise for life until an asteroid triggers a mass extinction, leading to the Paleogene, where mammals take over.

The Quaternary covers human history, with the continents resembling the present and mammals reigning supreme.

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Ernst vaan Waning
Ernst vaan Waning
3 months ago

LIked this one! It gives some intuition about the duration of different periods in the history of earth.

Naya
Naya
3 months ago

Great video. Thankyou.

Alice
Alice
3 months ago

I cannot add it to a list damn.

charlie anstey
charlie anstey
3 months ago

An okay video for an adolescent with an hour to kill.