Slavery and the Making of America
Slavery and the Making of America is a four-part series documenting the history of American slavery from its beginnings in the British colonies to its end in the Southern states and the years of post-Civil War Reconstruction.
Drawing on a wealth of recent scholarship, it looks at slavery as an integral part of a developing nation, challenging the long held notion that slavery was exclusively a Southern enterprise.
At the same time, by focusing on the remarkable stories of individual slaves, it offers new perspectives on the slave experience and testifies to the active role that Africans and African Americans took in surviving their bondage and shaping their own lives.
1. The Downward Spiral. Episode one opens in the 1620s with the introduction of 11 men of African descent and mixed ethnicity into slavery in New Amsterdam. Working side by side with white indentured servants, these men labored to lay the foundations of the Dutch colony that would later become New York. There were no laws defining the limitations imposed on slaves at this point in time. Enslaved people, such as Anthony d'Angola, Emmanuel Driggus, and Frances Driggus could bring suits to court, earn wages, and marry.
2. Liberty in the Air. From the 1740s to the 1830s, the institution of slavery continued to support economic development. As the slave population reproduced, American planters became less dependent on the African slave trade. Ensuing generations of slaves developed a unique culture that blended elements of African and American life. Episode two follows the paths of several African Americans, including Thomas Jefferson's slave Jupiter, Colonel Tye, Elizabeth Freeman, David Walker, and Maria Stewart, as they respond to the increasingly restrictive system of slavery.
3. Seeds of Destruction. One by one the Northern states, led by Vermont in 1777, adopted laws to abolish and phase out slavery. Simultaneously, slavery in the Southern United States entered the period of its greatest expansion. Episode three, which starts at the beginning of the 1800s, examines slavery's increasing divisiveness in America as the nation develops westward and cotton replaces tobacco as the country's most valuable crop.
4. The Challenge of Freedom. Episode four looks at Civil War and Reconstruction through the experiences of South Carolina slave Robert Smalls. It chronicles Smalls' daring escape to freedom, his military service, and his tenure as a congressman after the war. As the events of Smalls' life unfold, the complexities of this period in American history are revealed. The episode shows the transformation of the war from a struggle for union to a battle over slavery.
To some extent we are and always will be slaves in some manner to the dollar.We chase it all our lives yet it won't be of any-use once we are dead a fake god if ever there was one.It cares little how you get it or how much you have but while alive it is as valuble as the very air we breath.It also has a heaven called a bank where it is worshiped on mass but seldom used to improve life .
This has been the most interesting, long term discussion I've ever had! I love all of the opinions, points of view, and historical knowledge. The beauty about this discussion is that we all have information to share, whether we agree or disagree with one another. Here is the situation: African Americans do not need to earn the respect of our fellow citizens, no matter what your perceptions are of us. None of us are perfect...not even close. The good book says that the hearts of men are so treacherous that we don't know our own hearts! With that said, we are all imperfect. However, if African Americans and other Africans that were victims of the slave trade have it in our hearts to forgive the atrocities committed against our ancestors, why do we need to prove ourselves to be respectable people to the world? Our ancestors built this beautiful country to enable you and new immigrants to enjoy the luxuries and benefits that it offers, and to become the best you can be. Why do you think my people should earn your respect? You should be earning our respect!!! You should be happy, proud, respectful, and behave in a respectable manner toward African Americans, being that my ancestors were mentally, emotionally, and physically strong enough to survive a 400 year holocaust in which you and everyone else in the country have benefited from their labor of building this great nation!!! You should be grateful to us, we don't need to earn your respect!!! You need to earn our respect!!!! And start respecting us as Americans, and African Americans. You need to respect us for our contribution to the existence of our country, our tenacity to survive, our ability to forgive, our love and devotion that we've given to you and your ancestors; and our intellectual contributions - and we've only been free from physical slavery less within the last 90 years. I have friends with family members that lived on plantations in the 20th Century!! So you should respect what my ancestors and I have contributed to this great nation!
My opinion is that the European hated the black race mainly because of the color of their skin and they wanted to control because they thought they were the superior race.
The things that were done to black Africans in the Americas and Caribbean islands is in no way shape or form justifiable and the fact that these racists ideologies and practices continue and ASININE comments like yours further perpetuate the problem!!
What Ementot states is the truth. Long before the Ottomans and colonial conquerors, slavery was a fact of life. However, racism was not. Slaves in ancient Rome looked like the Romans often but even if they did not the Romans treated them no different. The sick and pernicious racism of antebellum southern America developed to justify the economic aspect of slavery. It was difficult to justify enslaving "other people" and other Christians so the myth of white superiority was perpetrated. I am not sure on what basis you infer Ementot's comments are racist. You do not even know this person. Plus I doubt anyone sane hates someone just for the color of their skin. Racism is about more than skin color. The English from the 16th Century until the 20th Century classified Irish people as a separate race so they could justify taking their land. language, religion and culture (plus it was good practice for what they did to Native Americans later on). Millions and millions of Irish died from English actions over several hundred years. At the time of the Great Famine (1840s to 1850s) most Irish lived as bad or worse as folks in sub-Saharan Africa. While not dragged to America like black slaves the Irish still had no choice. It was come here or die from starvation or English political oppression. They were dirt poor, ignorant and violent. It was not uncommon for as many as 30 or 40 persons to live in what we call a townhouse today (though no running water, electricity and only stoves for heat). The Irish used their numbers in places like Boston, NYC and Chicago to take political power. Latins need to do this. Black America has already started.
The Ottoman Empires and almost all dark ages colonial conquerors had slaves as spoils of wars and they were middle easterners, they had black as well as white ones! So get over it and go forward to earn respect instead of whining about it!
Would African American bee better off if there were never any slaves from Africa? Who sold African to England and America to be slaves? How is Africa doing lately? Probably slaves to their warlords just like their very distant cousins...?
"America was a slave owning country longer than it has been a free one"? Not unless this documentary was made in the 60s.
We have had had slavery since 1526. 1865-1526= 339 years. 2013-1865= 148 years. If you are wondering how I came to the this conclusion, I used math to find the answer.
and sadly - it continues.... cheap labor or free in sweat shops and the prison systems!
Em probably gets her news from Foxx
Industry used to go down soth for slave labor, now it goes to prisons, and overseas. Modern America has now proved what Southerners always knew: slavery works to make money. But no one ever said it was fair or equitable!
Complete atrocity! A just God wasn’t in that evil no way. Misconstrued the Biblical word and kept my ancestors “illiterate” over150 years and they think there is no residue that lingers nor any any accountability. No you may say my folks didn’t have slaves etc or I wasn’t alive. But you benefited from the if it was nothing but the white price page u enjoy. Jan 6 speaks blaring volumes. However same concept-different method. Dependence on them. Welfare, high interest, payday loans, predator financial tactics, gerrymandering, redistricting and many voter suppression laws and the the GOP!! Yet we move on and forgive. Your people are scared blacks and minorities will dole out what you have for centuries. Violence, destruction and forcible “hell” on this earth to others. It’s in the history. It just was kept from blacks and also tried to make them believe they had no history!! If you had not torn out pages of the Bible to justify your evil institution of slavery you would know. Need I say more?
whoa Morgan freeman lol
I can't find any academical journeys about John Punch. Can someone help me?
The advent of the combine harvester made slavery, white and black no longer economically viable, so slaves were 'liberated' as indentured servants of state (via birth certification, the introduction of 'sir' names generally for tax ID purposes). We need to get over that the term 'slavery' does not exclusively apply to 'black'. Slavery is slavery and is not colour predjudiced - never was.
Slavery in America and only America was about race.
Really? So what about the hundreds of thousands of white slaves building the colonies having been criminalised for being poor, shipped out of Britain and Ireland as well as Europe who preceded the Black slave trade? His-story isn't 'black and white'. And Wilberforce was not hero to 'abolition'. We're all slaves to the same bankster gangsters and as slaves, we're all equal - no race excluded except the 'Master Race' chosen ones. Who is filling our heads with the idea that slavery is an exclusively Black historical event? Those who were and are responsible for the global trade in humankind as cattle. Suggest you check out a black man of learning such as Prof. Tony Martin who disovered the truth. That's how your masters muster your mind, to set up one bunch of slaves against the other .. it's all a game of chess, mate.
In America, Europeans did not enslave other Europeans. They made it about race - only in America. That doesn't mean there were not other races that were enslaved, ALL races have been enslaved at some point, true. The difference is America was the only country that made it specifically about race.
The 'founding fathers' were relatives of the empire builders from Rome and Britain and they have always enslaved others, starting with the white European people. We are all enslaved at this point due to global banking.
I don't usually comment on public forums unless I have something positive to say. In sticking to that principle, I urge you to learn of the true history of slavery in the Americas that started before Africans; with natives and indentured British and Dutch servants brought to the colonies.
If you still insist that "Europeans did not enslave other Europeans", please read up on Doctor Bernardo's Home Children; British children that were extorted and enslaved well into the 20th century. ...or bringing matters into the present day, learn about child sex trafficking, which is particularly prevalent in poor and highly discriminated against Roma communities.
Freedom is priceless. Don't spend yours groaning about your personified false perception of history, lest we can never move forward.
And while you're about it, the term 'slave' comes from SLAV and Slavs are white, no? It was about economics as everything is, the rest is just one big fairy tale for gullible goyim. D'ya know that the term 'nigger' was originally used against the Irish and still is among the top Brit scumbags who use the term to denote all slaves. Amazing what you can learn if you want to, eh?
Actually the term Nigger derives from Niger, which is latin for "Black" or dark and was used by explorers to describe the river in West Africa called the Niger river that travels through the Benin Empire. A white women explorer latter gave th name to one of the Benin Territories, today known as Nigeria. In Latin the term has always meant black. So whoever decides to refer to whomever as Nigger whether the person is African, Irish, etc. It is a term that is derogative and was originally created to demean black people. It just so happens that the Irish were hated by the British, and viewed as trash like blacks were. That's all that is. Nothing more or nothing less. And yes, slavery was about economics and religion. Christians believed at the time, that anyone that was non Christian that they could own and enslave because the people were not fit in Gods eyes anyway. Read up on it! In addition, There has been no time period recorded in history, from the beginning of our biblical existence, starting from the book of Genesis that could ever compare to the atrocities committed against humanity during the Trans-Atlantic, and Triangular Slave Trade of importing Africans across the world. Not to mention the brutality and savages acts committed against the people from the 1500 to 1900 here in American. The African Egyptians did not commit such atrocities against the Hebrew Slaves. And even they were saved by the God (i.e., Yhwh or Jehovah) that Zephorah's tribe the Middianites introduced to Moses, who later became known as the God of Israel. One thing to understand is that European whites of the 21st Century had nothing to do with this pain that we still feel! They probably don't even know where or how to begin to help us heal our wounds. They are a race of people that are about making money. And they've been it a lot longer than we have. So now their competitive, aggression looks like a form of slavery. We have to learn how to compete!
Christians and other religion were tools to then govern all countries of their distant territories, it was cheap at no cost to their empires! Don't you people see the parallels to laws?
So, in that case, someone from Berlin would be a "Berliner" and would be derogatory. Sorry, your linguistics are foul. Besides you have said "A white women explorer....etc" and made no sense and no quotable references.
The way this has become out of hand is ridiculous. So, to call some one who is big and is it a problem to call him "bigger"?
That is how stupid this has become.
Besides, the so called, "black" people refer to themselves as "nigger" anyway. It is in their culture, music, art, songs, rhymes, videos, films, books and they even call and refer to themselves as "nigger." i.e. "Wassup nigger?"
or "Dats my nigger" (slang-nigga). The semantics of who can say it or who can not is just plain idiotic. You can either say it or not. No PC rubbish or exclusivity. You can't pick and choose who can and who cannot.
It has to be clear: Can you say it or not. And it applies to everyone.
That's not true Fred Bazzeeda. It is only
in America that the act of slavery was categorized by race. You need to have a
subterranean understanding about the fact of slavery before making stupid and
preposterous contributions about slavery. Your comment is fallible and it makes
no sense. What do you know about English man? Do you think American English is
English? The answer is a simple ‘No,’ therefore don’t be deceived. Is American
English taught in any part of America between elementary and tertiary level/
the answer is a simple no. You should be endeavoring to speak the queen’s
language “Proper English” and not discriminating other people. America is every man’s land as
it does not only belong to one person. We all know that America was not
initially the land of neither blacks nor whites but the Native Indians. Remember no one is perfect as everyone is
liable to blunder. I will assure you that Ontresicia’s inaccuracies were due to typographical inaccuracy. I advise you cease making outrageous and mean comments,
because it is for your own good. I have no doubt that you were brainwashed by
you greedy and self-centered ancestors about the fact of slavery. You ought to
know better. We are not here to discuss race, but concern for humanoids. Don't
be taken away by the useless actions of our ancestors. With these being said I
rest my case.
@Marvel: Wow, are you way out there or completely blind or deaf in what my comment was?
Your reply is so way of topic it is on the border of complete and irrelevant nonsense.
Your first and second sentence in your reply is completely wrong and invalid and therefore one can not take in the rest of your comment as towards any validity. So, in your case, it is "rested."
This entire World System was built on slavery: of all peoples. This should surely be evident generally by now.
And is still being built on slavery and indentured servitude..
Watch, RACISM: A HISTORY by BBC. The West by Ken Burns is pretty wild too. I read that there are more slaves in the world today than ever before. It would not surprise me if this is true.
I don't go with the 'racism' memes of the Racists within and behind BBC (British Buggery Corp) as this is a Bankster Zionista Mafioso creation, much like all the ISMS and schisms of that class and tribe.
However, through their imposition of Usury (use you and me) worldwide, enslaving everyone in debt, child trafficking and human trafficking/slavery is endemic. UN 'peacekeeping' forces, together with false front charity and 'aid' cabals have infiltrated all communities spreading terror, fragmentation, disease and death.
All courtesy of Crown Estates/City of London, Washington, Vatican city, Tel Aviv and UAE.
A global combo of '1984' and Animal Farm!
I'm entertained by the fact that you feel the BBC has a racially based hidden agenda that you would like to be perceived to object, but you make anti-zionist, anti-semitic, Italio-stereotypifying type comments.
Pot. Meet Kettle.
slavery did not end it just included everyone
Note: 'indentured servants' is a misnomer to give a false impression (for divide and rule purposes) that the term 'slavery' is and was exclusively 'black'. Not in the colonies, it wasn't. It was almost exclusively white until late into the process. Black slaves were purchased from African tribal chiefs or kidnapped (as were whites) by Barbary Pyrates (Muslim Moroccons) and traded with the Arabs via the Merchants (Jews). Blacks were pivotal to the justification of the butchery in the Southern States, on the 'slavery' ticket whlst the Founding Fathers one and all in the North (City of London controlled) were flagrant slave owners. Wilberforce argued for an end to Black Slavery and won it for the landgrab and looting of the South, forcing a confederacy all under CoL control. Whilst he was doing this, whites in Britain and Europe were from very young children, through to pregnant women, slaving up to 18 hours a day under brutual conditions long after 'slavery was abolished'. It never was. The blacks got taxed same as the whites is all that happened there.
The practice of holding people in bondage and coercing them to serve the predators who had weapons and used them on other less well-armed goes well back into the human experience. I encourage anyone interested to go online and type in The History of Slavery or a variation thereof. No one can claim that their ancestors were not at one time or another predator/prey. This is not meant to excuse the actions of those involved in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, but to encourage the readers to investigate for themselves the experience of bondage through the millennia. Don't be too surprised if you discover that the slave and master, in many cases, look like family.
If not for slavery, where would the African Americans be...Still in Africa!...I never read of any Africans rowing their dugout canoe across the oceans to discover America...Just face the facts...Without the slavery...Where would you be now...
The Black Americans That You Call Africans Are In Fact Not African At All But The Israelites That The Bible Speaks Of(Along With Latino, And Indians)....Read Deuteronomy 28th Chapter... Without Slavery We Would Be In Our Home Land Jerusalem,That Is Now Trodden Down By Gentiles(Caucasians, Arabs,Africans)... But Because We Broke The Laws Of The Most High We had To Serve This Captivity, But Time Is Almost Up, And You Caucasians(Edomites) Will Be Going Into Captivity,Along With The Arabs And Africans That Sold Us To You(Joel 3rd Chapter).... All Praises To The Most High And Christ...
u sure the the bible verse isnt referring to the israelites being slaves for the egyptians???
That also took place but once Jesus was killed long after that when God already freed the Israelites Jesus was crucified by them. As a result Africans were enslaved. Yet, if you look on the biblical map and compare it to where Africa is the country was called Ophir the richest place in all the land.
O...kay... I really think you need to dig around in your history textbook before making such statements. There is great evidence that the people to discover the Americas were AFRICANS... ever heard of the Olmecs? Without slavery... where would they be now? Oh, I'm sure they'd have made it across sooner or later. They're not inferior when it comes to technology. There is no reason to think that the Africans would still be in Africa without slavery!
Living happily in our homeland, God's country, the richest continent on this earth, Africa - the place where civilization began, the home of the Garden of Eden.
I agree with you one hundred percent! I think that these people who teach ignorance of Africa is clueless and racist. If we were still in our homeland then there would not be any of us because majority of us well just about all of us Americans: white, black, etc. are in fact mixed with other blood. Yet, there would be a beautiful Africa country with far more developed place than America is today. In addition, there would not be an America how do you think this country was built? Why did Americans as you claim to be Europeans come to this country? You were slaves in your own home treated poorly like dirt and came here to have a better life but were jealous of the Indians and decided to kill them off! It is obscure to me how people can go on from generation to generation and remain with such hatred for all man kind! Africans are the people who crucified Jesus Christ and as a result Jehovah punished 4 generations with slavery. If people pay close attention to the actual bible and stop allowing someone to preach the word to them they will known that Jesus were from Africa himself. The actual Africa was referred to many times as Ophir very rich country the richest so there is not an America, India or Rome mentioned not once in all of the Bible! Everything refers to tribes and so on! So, these things came along as time passed and being white is simply not a race but a cursed placed on human kind for our own sin. Why do you believe it is the only race without pigmentation? Certainly, not because its that way just don't have so much hate in your heart. You need to love people regardless of their skin color or language they speak life is by far more important than hating someone or believing in man. We are all descendants of Africans whether you believe it or not. Blacks were God chosen people who disobeyed him and that is the punishment that Africans, African Americans and other brown people have to pay as a result of their ancestors. Yet, please don't hate anyone for something you were not part of.
That is a very ignorant and uneducated statement. African people have been integrated into european countries long before slavery. Look all the way back to the roman days. And the reason why you have never heard of african people rowing to find other countries is possibly because it was never recorded. There are many things we still do not know about history. Do not assume because you have read about it you know everything.
Not respectful thing to call someone's statement ignorant.He may be upset from the ignorant things done to African American's and the whole generation to generation disrespect that has been done. smh
we Africans may be in Africa if not for slavery but be rest assured that Africa would be way more developed without the slave trade , Africans are basically the foundation of America . besides , we are not confined to one continent , we have freedom to move around . even if there was no slavery there would still be Africans scattered overseas.
Just look up ancient supership..African kings and queens traveled the world and spoke many languages...how do you think the maps were drawn? How do you think there is what appears to be a indigenous African tribe in the heart of ASIA's jungles...slave trade didn't go that way....
See what happens when you believe in American High school History...Jesus was Blonde with blue eyes....Christopher Columbus Found America...and life started with Adam and Eve....LMAO!
And what would be wrong with Africans remaining in Africa? The only problem with Africa is the problem within every landmass on Earth (as well as the high seas) - it's been colon-ised and raped. Take a people from the land and they lose they're identity - ID becomes DI - Displaced Individuals. If you look into the history of America, you'll find that no sooner had the white slaves gained 'solidarity' in protest for autonomy, the Merchants of Venice, set up their immigration of fresh meat at lower to no costs. Same old game being played out today - fragmentation.
And to all yes, yes but the time is at hand that the very plan that was plan to enslave is at its end. Fear and freedom no longer define who we are, what the condition by which we/our ancestor endured. What was done and continued for generation to generation no longer has its hold over our heads. The plan and purpose for those that were to stay in the "state" of internalized oppression, the institutions that form the good old boys way of thinking is now dead. It can not return because although African Americans have been condition not think on one accord, it was known then to be dangerous. The time is now we made it and the very words of truth by Thomas Jefferson ask they lingered in his mind, vibrated down his arm, therefore his hand confessed the one thing that when our time to unite is, remember (Thomas one of the oracles that formed the "Constitution") said in his letter to his friend, "truly if there is a God, we will pay for what we have done". Yes, yes we are going to have to exercise the very nature that was intended to keep us down and humble, in that we have surpassed the intended plan, we exceeded the purpose, now we have been chosen to rise up, unite and make a conscious decision because the very ones that had the plan for us, are now living the plan and they never took note how we survived nor did they care. Well now as a people we have to make individual yet united the decisions should we now care for those that have no idea how we did it, we now have to decide if we want to allow them to understand and show them what and how we did it, or do we truly act out the very acts by which we know would only bring us to another "state" that they started, yet along we were chosen (yes Yes) to bring it all to the "end" of the mentality of the slave masters pin, we know it ran out of ink way before we gave up and gave in. I ask you as "people of color will you take a stand no matter where or ancestors have been, and allow ourselves to be the chosen, according to the divine end that was planned. We made it, we got it, now how will we deliver and recondition the earth and the land. We are the answer to "OUR MASTERS PLAN" will you say yes, yes I/we to can.
One important difference between slavery and indenture--Slavery was inherited--hence, the term chattel--bartered, bred, owned, and inherited in perpetuity (the child shall follow the condition of the mother) . . . African slaves first traded, and then bred domestically after the trade ended--disconnected from cultural or ethnic backgrounds and denied the rights of national citizenry (de jure) until Civil War, and then for a century afterwards de facto until 1965 - - - the condition and situation of African Slavery in the United States is unique --- a fact that does not in any way diminish other forms of slavery and oppression of non-Africans--or for that matter atrocities suffered throughout the world by many of multiple "races" etc.
No. Not so different. Children born to an indentured slave belonged to the master (was sometimes of the master) even if the woman somehow managed to earn her freedom; she would not leave her children so continued as a slave. Irish women and girls shipped overseas for over 200 years before the African introduction, were bred with the more expensive African male slaves to produce fresh free stock. That's why a law was brought in eventually prohibiting this interbreeding; it interfered with the local trading merchant's profits. Similar lines along which African slave trading was outlawed; The Guv and merchants wanted direct access to each and every slave for taxation and control purposes. Thereby all became 'equal' with 'equal rights' i.e. no rights at all as indentured servants of the state just like their white counterparts had always been.
African slave value: up to 50 shillings sterling
Irish indentured servant: up to 5 shillings
The math should put to rest any further argument regards the African slave trade as being unique or unusual in the course of this continuing trade. In fact, African slaves were highly valued and as such would have been treated more carefully than the disposable Irish 'trash' huh?
Neither is there anything exceptional about the way in which merchants and landowners have imported slave immigrants from radically different backgrounds to undermine the indigenous slave population's strive for improved conditions and wages; thus creating a wonderful tool with which to fashion the myth of 'racism' amongst them to divide and rule.
A mature people would not brandish their assumed victimhood as the worst, or only or biggest or unique. This myopically introspective and insular denial of the context of their nation's or people's plight, is, I find, both repugnant and pathetic. This prize victimhoodISM has its roots firmly entwined with the despicable myth of the biggest mfukg victims of all time, of biblical proportions, on a cinema screen near you. Yes, they are gods chosen people and we are suffering for their sins - literally crucified for them.
And if you want to talk about the horrors of slavery, take the blinkers off and look into Irish and English, Polish and Africaans, Serbian, Slovakian or any one else's history and you will find the same atrocities at least a hundredfold.
Slavery is equality. Equal as slaves, at last, those promoting the notion that slavery is exclusively black and exclusively history are being mislead by our masters and haven't either the wit or compassion with others to even suspect it is so.
Last week CNN's Anderson Cooper claimed that slaves were not married until the 20th century as he "intelligently" attacked Michele Bachmann. It turns out that she was right - this documentary claims that she was right with the first documented slave marriage being in 1641.
It is well documented that the slaves were not allowed to be legally married, they were allowed to Jump The Broom, which was in no way a recognized form of legal marriage in America, thus the prolonged and acceptance of their white slave masters for being able to basically sell so-called husbands and wives, they could do that in a clear Christian conscience because they did not allow slave to be married under the eyes of God or legally. To this day many African Americans incorporate Jumping The Broom into their marriages as a way of paying homage to the time when we ( yes, I am Black) were not allowed to be legally married under the law or under the eyes of God. Anderson was right, Bachmann was wrong but then again she makes a career out of being wrong, nothing new with her at all.
dav: There certainly were instances of slavery all over the world in all periods of history but NEVER has there been such a prolonged, atrocious and cruel period than the slave trade from Africa to America.
The Irish slave trade eventually stopped and there also were many instances of indentured servitude where the people were set free after a number of years while that (almost) never happened to African slaves.
The point that you are missing is that the African American slave trade and slavery eventually stopped but the atrocities kept going on during Reconstruction and beyond.
How many of the former Irish slaves were made share croppers with no rights? How many former Irish slaves had to suffer segregation? How many of the former Irish slaves were denied their right to vote?
And if you want to equivocate, I'll have to ask you this: What are several million people who are in large parts still not free compared to several thousand people who have been free for centuries?
You need to do quite a bit more research about slavery in general across the Western Hemisphere going back two thousand years. You're displaying bias.
Just Me Wrote:
"but NEVER has there been such a prolonged, atrocious and cruel period than the slave trade from Africa to America."
That's so frigging ignorant I don't know where to start!
To start I'll just say ROME. Rome subsisted on slavery for a thousand years...get a grip on reality.
And atrocious? The Colosseum in Rome saw the death of more than a million slaves (gladiators)..for entertainment and every Roman city big or small had its own Arena. The Roman slave owners used to sell old and sick plantation slaves to the Arena to be used as prey (food) for wild beasts...a major form of entertainment.
And as a matter of fact Black Africans were always really good at enslaving other Black Africans---not to be shipped anywhere but for domestic use.
From medieval times to the early 20th century:
•Most West African countries/tribes/kingdoms were about 2/3 free and 1/3 slaves and in most cases the slaves were treated like shit.
•Ethiopia and Eritrea had 20% slave population slavery was abolished there in 1923
The Black Somalian slavers, pirates and slave owners turned slavery into a way of life for centuries and raided into central Africa to enslave millions of Bantu people for sale and domestic use over the years. They considered and still do consider Bantu people sub human. Without the Somalian's, Ethiopians and Sudanese, the Arab slave trade in Africans wouldn't have been possible.
•By far the most prolific slavers were Arabs they enslaved not only Africans but Slavs, Europeans, Turks, Ukranians and Semitic people from 700AD to the 19th century. (with Slav's being their favorite prey)
Segregation? Today in Somalia Bantu people are segregated and sexual contact with a Bantu is a major social sin for ethnic Somalis and Oromos.
None of what I wrote is in any way offered as justification for slavery in America. It is just my way of saying that It would probably be a good idea to educate yourself on the subject of slavery and Africa. That way you won't come off as an ignorant cry baby.
Note: Since you don't know what a Bantu is 'Just Me', I'll tell you.
"A Bantu is an African from Central Africa to South Africa that speaks any of the ~600 Bantu languages. Dialects like Swahili, Lingala, isiZulu, Luganda,and Shona."
Thanks Charles for reminding all of us. The birth right shall be restored.
Men, women and children both black and white died so that the label of slave would never again be placed upon any ethnic group.
The untold number of unmarked graves sing out the names of the many who lived and died for our cause. To be reminded that in 2011, 392 years after the first slaves made port that some choose to ignore this information is sadly not surprising. Our women whose beauty was made a curse form early childhood our fathers whose strength was the cause of their deaths. Our time is now to be the fathers and mothers that out ancestors crave to see us be from their graves is now. The history of us proclaimed African-Americans us so-called "blacks" history goes farther than American soil. We are the sons and daughters of Moses, Abraham, David. Be strong with a sense of history not weaker without it. To my Hebrew!!! brothers and sisters I love you all. Be significant to your family and friends. Thank you if you read
Men, women and children both black and white died so that the label of slave would never again be placed upon any ethnic group.
The untold number of unmarked graves sing out the names of the many who lived and died for our cause. To be reminded that in 2011, 392 years after the first slaves made port that some choose to ignore this information is sadly not surprising. Our women whose beauty was made a curse form early childhood our fathers whose strength was the cause of their deaths. Our time is now to be the fathers and mothers that out ancestors crave to see us be from their graves is now. The history of us proclaimed African-Americans us so-called "blacks" history goes farther than American soil. We are the sons and daughters of Moses, Abraham, David. Be strong with a sense of history not weaker without it. To my Hebrew!!! brothers and sisters I love you all. Be significant to your family and friends.
Thanks for the post, Sparkling!
As for STONEMAN and co.: Take your ignorant, racist troll-ramblings elsewhere!
Sparkling addressed the issues quite well. It is amazing to me how the comments themselves begin to reveal racists values in about no time at all.
@ Philip Van der Mude
any relation to Eric?
Yes monsanto has papal approval so I hear.
One feed of GM soy to ratlets in (banned) research) GMed then completely.
New face of farmed humans.
Oh Yes? what about IRISH slaves? the first official auction of 30,000 irish "political prisoners" by the english government took place in Virginia in 1623. Mostly died within a year. Torture, abuse, worked to death. cheap.
The Irish were literate, well dressed, had the first literature after Rome and Greece. Then the english slavers ran them down on horseback, men and women and children (SEX SLAVES) for illiterate Virginian owners.. Bred with irish girls, then bred them with blacks. These were slaves for LIFE if they lived as were their children.
The population of Ireland was 1.5 million at the beginning of slavery, 0.6 million at the end of slavery.
WHY DOES AMERICA NOT INCLUDE THIS INFORMATION?
Sure later there were indentured "irish" who were english/scottish poor tenant farmers of irish land given to english who financed the english invading army. The irish owners were hung, banished to Clare and Galway, forbidden to own land to starve or sold as slaves for life.
THis is disgusting to see a Top Documentary Film STILL LYING.
re: Stoneman, after reading the rest of his comments, it's clear that he's not even WORTH addressing. He's totally racist and ignorant. I hope that anyone after me doesn't waste time trying to argue against his illogical trolling.
@Smart Alek & Stoneman...Firstly, ALL history is relevant. It will never not be relevant. We study the Jewish holocaust thoroughly and yet we merely GRAZE over the crime that was the African Slave Trade. You cannot know where you're going until you know where you've been. Yes, that old cliché still remains.
Secondly, the fact that other atrocities have happened in human history and ARE HAPPENING at this very moment cannot be disputed. Comparing one diabolical human event to another is completely illogical though. What is the point of saying 'Palestinians endured worse slavery'? All of these events are tied to one another and all of them matter. We should learn about all of them, study them relentlessly.
3) Thirdly, I don't understand the notion that Black Americans are angry at white folks for what their ancestors did 100 years ago. If anything, black people are "angry" at the existence and institution and cruelty of the African Slave Trade, not the slaveholders' descendents. I would say, though, that many people today are totally frustrated and angry at the fact that slavery in America is given a passing mention in History Class. Slavery has roots in America's foundation yet it is treated as an unfortunate blip in America's "virtuous" history - it needs to be given a lot more attention.
I won't even go into the aftermath of slavery and what that MEANT *and* MEANS for Black Americans - that is another discussion that needs to be addressed separately.
4) Clearly there is a lack of understanding all-around. No one - i.e. Black, White or other- has been properly educated on The African Slavetrade. Our school cirriculums have failed us miserably. It doesn't do anyone justice to play the blame game....it does nothing for Blacks to blame Whites for the slavery and it doesn't solve anything for Whites to become immediately defensive and try to seperate themselves from slavery. We are all connected to slavery in the Americas, we CANNOT separate ourselves from it because it is a LARGE part of what western society was founded on. If we are to disown or forget slavery as part of the American Experience than we must also disown the invention of the lightbulb, the first mission to space, the attack on Pearl Harbour, and the Industrial Revolution. We cannnot revel in the glorious parts of our history and sweep the shameful parts under the rug. All of it is relevant.
......and is there ANY mention of the Irish slave trade? Let's address that while we're at it. What groups were overwhelmingly responsible for the African slave trades, one in particular? Here's a hint. They don't consider themselves "white" since "whites" and blacks are referred to as Goyim. Do a little research into the Talmud. It pays to know who your real nemesis is in both the past and present.
Links not working.
Yes they're working. Move the slider to the right and back. Press pause and then play. At least they're working for me.
Linda and Pacha and others; There is one important thing about what led to crimes against humanity, you guys forget to mention is giving, Palestine, which they don't own to the nomad people.
@stoneman i understand what u r trying 2 say about how people should move on from the past and descendents of slaveowners should't be held responsible 4 the actions of their ancestors... the problem lies in the arrogance and racist values that r instilled in the descendents and future generations of those ancestors u say we should 4get. no matter what colour we r we all seem 2 harbour some level of racism towards each other that we r not born with. until we all become accountable for our actions as human beings both in the past and present we will keep repeating history in the future . let's not 4get the past because our (hi)stories are what make us who we r2day. instead let's learn from our mistakes and reassess our positions in this world as human beings. peace & love
Closed minds usually are the majority, always have been it seems. Sad.
Stoneman and realities point is that the descendants of slaves were and still aee being punished. because of the life they were forced into and the inequalities they still face are very real and a direct result of the actions/inactions of the past.
once again. you are embarrassing me as a white person and i hope you just stop soon. take some time to look outside of your bubble and examine the way the world is working and look to history to understand why.
My point is, no one today had anything to do with those past decisions. You can't punish the ones that did it because they died long ago. Trying to punish their decendants generations later wont work because many of them also have part Native American and African American blood also. All we can do is be logical and learn from the past and ensure a better future. We can actully change that.
"When does it end?" How many years did slavery exist in America? How many years were there laws on the books that prohibited Afrikan-Americans from enjoying the benefits of full citizenship? Let's just address the years between 1875 (Jim Crow) and 1965 (Civil Rights Bill). That's about 90 years, right? So if I were to expect equalization of entitlements in this legalized scenario, it would end in 2055. We had about 10 years, from 1865 to 1875 where the government made some attempts to provide assistance to a "freed people". However, the promise of '40 acres and a mule' wasn't sustained. Perhaps if that had been done, and property ownership; a basis for the building of wealth had been extended to the descendants of enslaved Afrikans, the opportunity to sustain our existence would have amounted to economic achievements that rivaled the success of Black businesses and professionals in Tulsa, Oklahoma. However, I fear that the envy and jealousy of right winged extremist would have probably evoked similar attacks chronicled in the history of Tulsa.
Sorry Stoneman but I don't waste my time arguing with i@#$%&.
and @ Pacha, I have never met an African American slave, or a child thereof. I for one, belive that the fault lies in the slave. If you enslave me, I will rise up and fight for my freedom at every chance. If you are a slave, it's because you allow youreself to be so. Americans Indians for example.
Uh, were you not watching the documentary? First if you were placed in a foreign country where you don't know your whereabouts, the language, the culture, literally in a totally new environment where would you go if you rebel? You'd die/get killed trying to fight constantly which people did. And then slavery PSYCHOLOGICALLY damaging. The slaves were brought up from birth to believe there is not other way and you are to be inferior and to think low about yourself and so on. Unfortunately this damage has been passed on from generation to generation. And groups of people did indeed try to fight back... revert back to the documentary listing people/groups that tried to do just that and failed only to upset the slave owners and receive sever punishment. And these people surely were not trying to be "allowed" to be slaves. The situation was very difficult and the times were extremely bad and the country and it's leaders were against them. Even if you were free you had it bad.
I ment Veretus
@ Epicurus,Sorry if the truth hurts, but- In vino veterus.
@stoneman...stop talking. you look foolish.
Not looking for gratitude.
Maybe giving your life and that of your family, and all your cash, can help repay that debt. Good luck with recieving grattitude.
Are you sick in the head or perhaps just a little dumb?
You never got a penny from the slave trade?
What do you think created the wealth and power that britain and america have today. It was things like slavery.
And strangely enough, things which we, mere mortals aren't allowed to do today, like dealing in opiates and hemp.
The (white) western world owes an unending debt to the black people of the world... in my opinion.
Just for the record, I am a white, english born, 45 year old man.
I'm ashamed of my country's actions in the past, but equally ashamed of it's actions in present times.
My mistake, I was thinking about the Braveheart movie
Good choice of words Scotland! I suppose he wants a button or medal for being from South Africa then moving to Europe to benefit from their wealth. In America a huge part of our taxes go to supporting and paying for the sins of our ancestors over a century ago through welfare, project housing, prisons, and free medical care. I never got a penny from the slave's work, but their great great great grandchildren get millions from European American's taxes each month. When does it end?
Good choice of words Ireland! I suppose he wants a button or medal for being from South Africa then moving to Europe to benefit from their wealth. In America a huge part of our taxes go to supporting and paying for the sins of our ancestors over a century ago through welfare, project housing, prisons, and free medical care. I never got a penny from the slave's work, but their great great great grandchildren get millions from European American's taxes each month. When does it end?
sorry my country makes you ashamed
we have a saying in scotland,
"dont let the door hit you on the arse on the way out"
feel free to return to your own country as soon as you can.
reading this and all your comments, I just see that opression is here to stay.
I'm a black SOUTH AFRICAN.I grew up in the boiling pot of apartheid when I was suppossed to be stripped off of my BEING,fought my way through to become whom I am today.
I am ashamed to say that having lived in the UK for the last 8yrs,I have observed the same treatment as back home.only now it is not naked, but dressed in gold.
I challenge all African Americans to denounce the sterotype that all they can do is- Run Jump Sing and Dance! Rise up and become inventors and creators!
Frederick Mckinley Jones
Jan Ernst Matzeliger
George Edward Alcorn
Madame C J Walker
Great Inventors, Creators, and Thinkers.. Why not challenge ALL people to rise up and become whatever they choose to put their creative mind too....Peace
we have and continue to do so. its others who believe the stereotype and the media SERIOUSLY perpetuates this. We are america's boogey men. Beware! the blacks are moving in the neighborhood. For example, there are 12 times more black lawyers in this country than athletes. As a community WE know this but most others only view us as singers and ball throwers, People cry assimilation but run when they see us.
But who couldn't love Morgan Freeman? I watched him on The Electric Company in the 70s
Correct me if I'm wrong, but didn't Rome and most other empires use blacks as slaves very sucessfully long before America was discoved? I wondered why they would sail all the way to Africa to get slaves when they had native Americans here everywhere. A little research said that they did actually try this- but the indians would fight back too hard, cutting and stabbing the master till the idea was abandonded and the native Americans released for the mentally inferior Africans- Not my words, just history!
im scottish also,but have no problem describing myself as british.
born and raised in your capital city
im sick to the back teeth of people trying to make me feel guilty for the actions of my forefathers.
they were men and women of their time and wether you like it or not,the simple fact is if we(british)didnt build an empire,the french,spanish or even the dutch would have done.
dont blame britain for the worlds problems.
infact before you point your finger at britain,try looking closer to rome,the catholic cult has been responsible for far more of mankinds heartaches than the british empire ever was.
Hi I have Irish blood in me my grandmother came from County Tyrone so I know what the English did to the Irish during the potato famine shame no one learn's anything by looking back at the past.
you only have to look across the irish sea for a fine example of british slavery.
and ireland still suffers from the hangover of british colonisation in the form of the troubles in the occupied six counties.
it seems to be written out of history that the irish population was enslaved and forced from their lands, culminating in a famine which was more a case of british genocide as all food produced in ireland during the famine in the 1800s was sent to britain. killing over 1.5million irish people.
You should get back to your clan meeting. The rest of the boys will be missing you.
amazing documentary ..
I love Morgan Freeman's narration.. couldn't have picked a better person!
I would think that "the Papacy" clearly identifies the brand of Christianity referenced in my brief statement. "All" would have to apply to over 3,800 denominations and my interest in every aspect of Christianity is not that strong. As for the tip on Coptic Christianity, that research was done many years ago so I have no need to look again, but thanks for the inclusion.
" if we can find a video on slavery in Russia that would
be interesting as they were all White"
Actual Mike Russia is the largest multi-ethic nation in the world has more 300 native languages and skin color varies.
Thought infant they them selfs were victims of being enslaved by the Golden horde, Muslim warlords invaded Russia for slaves, till Russian empire conquered them.
As for Chief," In Christianity (and you probably know this) the Papacy held that Africans had no souls and were thus useful as beasts of burden. In the Americas, church leaders passed on enslaving indigenous people in favor of enslavement of Africans"
Maybe you should do some research instead of saying all Christianity. Because there was already Christians in Africa long before Islam and they belonged to ancient Orthodox Christian church. In fact Ethiopia is one of the oldest Christian nations on earth.
I took Smart aleck's advice, because I thought his comments were well thought out, and watched his recommended video. Its definately worth watching as slavery in the
Middle East was quite large, larger than the new World.
Now if we can find a video on slavery in Russia that would
be interesting as they were all White. And for you readers
try: Out of America by Keith Richberg for another view of
the African continent. That's a read that will rattle a few cages.
I notice that all the lefty do-gooders completely ignored Smart Aleck's explanation of the facts.
But then why should good lefties let facts get in the way?
Thank you for understanding the suffering of the mass & learning the truth. if there were more white people like you understand wisdom rather than drawing lines, the world would be a better place.....
Linda I too become angry at times, especially when the role of religion comes into view. I imagine that the unanswerable questions of natural phenomena and the innate ability of humans to reach an altered state of consciousness inevitably led to behaviors that had to be ritualized; hence, the evolution of religion in all of its varied forms. The religions of Christianity and Islam, historically, have been the most obscene practitioners and proponents of the enslavement of fellow human. In Christianity (and you probably know this) the Papacy held that Africans had no souls and were thus useful as beasts of burden. In the Americas, church leaders passed on enslaving indigenous people in favor of enslavement of Africans. Yet, for all of its evil throughout its evolution as a World Religion, the Christian Church appears to be poised to take over the governance in many cities in the United States. Socities, in general, teach only those ideals that make itself look great. They hope that the dark side stays hidden from public consumption. You are to be commended, as a parent, for sharing knowledge with your daughter. There is an African proverb that I follow: Each One Teach One! Kerry is ceretainly counted and anyone else who chooses to read your posts with an open mind (if they are in darkness) might choose to investigate the ideas of Charles Darwin. Top Documentary Films is indeed a wonderful site with a variety of views being expressed, but the Science section is my favorite. I wish you continued growth and at 62, I plan to return to school in the fall.
In answer to your question,yes Kerry and I have had many discussion's regarding this and she is in agreement that there must have been evolution in stead of the creation stories. When I was young and my father told me about Darwin I thought it rather funny to be an ape's cousin but I could not understand from a very young age how a god who was supposed to love all thing's let bad thing's happen. I was 14 when I stopped going down the creation route and then started to read all I could about mankind's origin's as I said in my OP I was not taught at school and have learned so much more since I left and then my children got me this laptop and I have a great wealth of learning at my disposal now, and I am angry that I was not told the correct history at school because I feel it let me grow up ignorant to other's plight's I am so glad I found this site as I have learned many thing's, I was taught where just wrong and all because of the closed mindedness of the generation I was brought up in. I would love to go back to collage now but I am afraid that at 54 I am too old lol to sit in a classroom situation as the children now are allowed to speak and debate with thier teacher's were I was told to shut up and read or go to the back of the class nasty memories lol
Have a nice day Chief.
the confuse and conquer of humanity in WHOLE shows the fruit of violence as a method of change alone without the prior education of the masses . .... complextiy upon complexity since the days of SUMI and PHAROH ( black or Arab pharoh )
the idea of a slave purchasing his own freedom is a time honored tradition of slavery .... ie Richest man in bablylon , mostly ignored in the new world slavery industry where human slaves were treated like LIVE STOCK . actually bred for certain character and selectively sold on markets depending on the cultures they were harvested from , more UN RULY peoples went to brazil death camps on surgar factorys while americam slaves were sold with ideas they could be trained and selectively bred to be SUB SERVIENT or good natured LIVE STOCK ...dependant live stock .
personelly i will take open blame for my Holder ancestors who owned humans and my Mudde family who traded and transported them ( mom and pop the full family tree is polluted ) and so is yours whether you were the OWNER of the property or the property in debt servant form or deirect slave live stock or SERF live stock , our continued choice to ignore HISTORY will insure todays new econimc slavery.
forced out of Politics , forced out of real self dierction , today 1/2 black Arab american DUPE president is gift of the under lying controlling aspect that guides the MASSES thru $$$$
Great EMOTIONAL VIDEO , good use of music to insure heart strings are turned on and HIGHER THINKING is subdued .... and the voice of the Narrator ..... Morgan .... great choice . complexity upon complexity leading us NO WHERE .
CAn you FEED YOURSELF SLAVE ? or are you now slave to Mansanto ?
Linda, has your daughter shared her thoughts with you concerning Darwin? Many years ago, in the mid 70's, my father tried to get me to consider Charles Darwin and Carl Sagan's scientific expression about our place in the universe. Unfortunately, I was close minded, sold out to a religious bent. Life's lessons, a descent education, and a love for learning after retirement helped me to see with new eyes. Fortunately for me, I was not afraid to question my belief system and proving "all things" included that which I once believed. That system of belief caused Charles darwin to be extremely cautious and exacting in revealing what he had proven to himself. His life will continue to impact the world as the exploration of scientific thought advances. I do my best to share what I uncover with members of my family and others who appreciate the path that I travel.
Lets not forget King Leopold of Belgium who was responsible for 10 million deaths in the congo region at the turn of the 20th century. Among the many hideous things they used to do was to chop people's hands off to prove they'd been killed. Quite often they didn't kill them but just chopped their hands off to claim the reward.
It's absolutely disgusting the way the white man has treated the African nation and the most amazing thing of all is, we're still doing it.
Slaves in America were exploited/killed far worse than the Africans that sold them to the Europeans.
It doesn't matter who started it; it's the damn greed and disdain for other human life that make it sickening.
Slavery is an attrocity. Period.
I dont think thing's will change any time soon as there are to many people not ready to listen to the scientist's, They have closed mind's and we also have the religious fraction to deal with. They dont allow evolution to be taught in school's even here in Scotland they dont even teach ( grand design) let alone Darwin. I also think if we were to go down the path of L1 and L2 and the tree of life there is far to much greed in the world to make a differance it's a case of I am alright Jack dont bother me. I have let my Daughter watch some of the evolution video's on here she is almost 18 and studing music at collage, but before she saw the video's she had never heard of Charles Darwin which I think is wrong, as it should be included in the school's curriclum everyone should have the chance to read Origin of the Species and decide for themself's in stead of going down the creation route. I stress these are my thought's on the issue and I am not knocking anyone's faith.
Linda, I appreciate your response but I would like to know your thoughts concerning the behavior of people if they were educated in the knowledge of the relevancy of haplogroup L1 and L2 on the human tree of life? If it were known by the vast majority of people on this planet, would they continue to despise the ROOT of their existence or would there be a change in attitude? Perhaps one of gratitude and respect? The Genome Project (Human DND Mapping)was a big event from 1990 to 2000. The Code of life was cracked and DNA markers authenticated the findings of paleontologists, archeologist, climatologist and geneticist that placed the Cradle of Life in East Africa. How will that information enter into future education endeavors? I suspect that nothing will change unless there is a grassroots effort launched to make this information know. This site helps and if you would invite others to watch DVDs that help enhance your education, we'll be on our way to changing mindsets.
Thank you for sharing your past with us, as I said in my original post, we were not taught those thing's at the time I went to school,I am ashamed of my own countries part in what they did at a similar time, to the so called empire they were responsible for building and when the heat got to hot out they came leaving nothing but destucted land's and life's behind thank's again for reminding us that we are all decendant's of haplogroup L1 and L2 Chief have a good day.
There will probably be few viewers of this documentary with little commentary. I hope I am wrong but as a descendant of enslaved Africans from Sierra Leone, my personal experiences cloud my perception. Most people just want to move on as if nothing happened. White people, in general, want to avoid the legacy of guilt but relish the privileges of growing up White in America. To me, it is amaziing that my ancestors survived the atrocities heaped upon them. But I have come to know that the existence of humanity, whereever humans are found, is because of the survival, over 100,000 years ago, of the ancestors of haplogroup L1 and L2 (The Human Family Tree: Genographic Project). Would it matter if more people knew their deep ancestry and connection to African people?
i think that's why racism continues to exist -- because people don't know the truth in history. I'm sure if more people understood the horrendous treatment an entire race received from the 1600s and early to now, I'm sure there would be a difference in treatment with each other.
Thankyou Pacha, I left school 39 year's ago and had to learn everything formy self also I learned more after I left. I am also ashamed of my county for the part they played in the mess they have left for future generation's to fix if that is possible.
I totally agree Linda. The English played a part in most of the cr*p that's still going on around the world including the slave trade.
I come from a similar background and although I was born in England, I'm more ashamed of that than anything.
I also wish I'd been taught the truth about history at school because I've spent the last 35 years trying to work it all out for myself.
i guess if your interested in slavery this could have some useful information for you.....but for me it was boring.... i didnt really like it i fell asleep watchin it......i think slavery still exist anyways so get a doc on that and all watch that
I learned a lot from this documentary. I never knew the true story of Afican American's untill today. Blessed Be Mr Robert Smalls. My own country Britain also caused untold suffering to the people's of India during the time of the Raj during Queen Victoria's time on the throne. I am Scottish so I dont class my self as British so I will refer to what Britain did in those time's, they went on to create Pakistan by thier usual meathod's of drawing line's in the sand, and when the Asian people came to settle in Britain in the 1960's they were horrified that those paki's where allowed to come and settle here. In 1913 they did the same with Palestine and look what is happening there to this day hang your head in shame Britain. I was brought up in a working class home and I went to secondary school in the late 60's early 70's and as I was being taught by middle class snob's and being female I was taught to fail if you get my drift what good was an education to me, I was only good for a factory and was going to get married and have children to keep the slave labour going for the upper classes. I however went to night school and studied and went on to become a nursing sister, I also married and had children, my only regret is that we were never told what was going on in politic's then as my life might have taken a differant path, but then again I doubt that would have happened either being a white Scot from an impoverished back ground I would never been able to afford the university fee's and neither would my Father.I am sorry for the rabble but it make's my blood boil at the unjust treatment that is still going on around the world today.
Thank you for taking the time to read my post.
Love and Peace,